The Biggest Revelation from Every NFL Team's OTAs
Organized team activities are an interesting bit of the NFL offseason. Teams are busy installing new schemes and evaluating talent, while players are just getting back into the football flow—largely in shorts and helmets. Live hitting is a big no-no, and many of the top players don't even participate.
Yet, there is still plenty to be gleaned from OTA season.
Is an incoming rookie grasping the playbook? Is the aging veteran quarterback showing the live arm and accuracy needed to thrive for another year? How is that big offseason acquisition fitting in with his new teammates?
With OTAs and minicamps wrapping up around the league, here's a list of the most notable things we've learned about each team.
Arizona Cardinals: Kyler Murray Picking Up the Offense Quickly
The Arizona Cardinals are hoping No. 1 overall pick Kyler Murray is ready to be the starting quarterback by Week 1. While it's still uncertain if he can quickly adapt to the speed and nuances of the pro game, Murray is already showing a tremendous grasp of head coach Kliff Kingsbury's offensive system.
At least mentally, Murray should be ready to run the offense immediately.
Atlanta Falcons: Keanu Neal Is Back
Injuries were largely responsible for the Atlanta Falcons' disappointing 2018, and perhaps no loss was bigger than that of safety Keanu Neal.
He started 30 games for the Falcons over his first two seasons and amassed 220 tackles, 14 passes defended and an interception in that span. However, a torn ACL cut his 2018 season short after one game.
The good news for Atlanta is that Neal was back and working with the team in OTAs.
"The real purpose is to get back in with the group, then when you start training camp it's not for the first time," head coach Dan Quinn said, per Will McFadden of the team's official website.
It looks like Neal will be back to 100 percent by the time training camp rolls around, and that's a huge development for a Falcons defense that sorely missed him last season.
Baltimore Ravens: The Secondary Is Loaded
The Baltimore Ravens have invested heavily in their secondary over the last few seasons. Their latest addition, safety Earl Thomas, is the molten fudge on perhaps the best secondary sundae in the league.
If OTAs are an accurate indication, the Ravens may have some starting-caliber safeties and cornerbacks who don't even make the roster.
"They're so deep at those positions that a few players who belong on the field in the NFL will be hard-pressed to make the roster," John Eisenberg of the team's official website wrote. "That's one of my takeaways from watching them together on the practice field and doing a little math."
With players such as Thomas, Marlon Humphrey, Tony Jefferson and Brandon Carr in the starting secondary, the Ravens indeed appear to have an elite unit.
Buffalo Bills: Injuries Could Be an Issue Heading into Camp
The Buffalo Bills have already lost new tight end Tyler Kroft for an extended period with a broken foot. Unfortunately, that isn't the only injury that could impact the team as it heads toward training camp.
According to Nick Wojton of Bills Wire, other players who are dealing with injuries include tackle Ty Nsekhe, defensive end Eli Harold, cornerback E.J. Gaines, wideout Cole Beasley, receiver Zay Jones and tight end Jason Croom.
The good news is that only Kroft's injury appears to be serious.
"Overall, other than really Tyler's situation that we talked about the other week, most of them, at this point, are shorter-term situations," head coach Sean McDermott said per Wojton.
The bad news is that several of the injured players—including Kroft, Beasley and Nsekhe—are additions who need their offseason reps to integrate themselves.
Carolina Panthers: There's a Defensive Focus on Hybrid Pass-Rushers
Carolina Panthers quarterback Cam Newton hasn't been at OTAs because he's still recovering from shoulder surgery. That isn't a revelation. What is interesting, though, is the Panthers appear to be trying something different with their pass rush.
According to Jourdan Rodrigue of the Charlotte Observer, Carolina has been working its pass-rushers separately from their individual position groups.
"As the Panthers defense works to get more multiple, one notable difference in practice structure is that the hybrid defensive ends/linebackers at times work in their own group, separate from the other defensive linemen and linebackers," Rodrigue wrote.
This suggests that pass-rushers Bruce Irvin, Mario Addison and rookie Brian Burns will often be viewed as edge-defenders, with the border between linebacker and end blurred or even nonexistent in certain situations.
Chicago Bears: They're Approaching the Kicking Battle from Multiple Angles
The Chicago Bears are desperately trying to find a new kicker in the wake of Cody Parkey's missed playoff dinger. Chicago has Chris Blewitt, Elliott Fry and Eddy Pineiro on the roster, and it isn't afraid to take an unconventional approach to the competition.
The Bears have even implemented a golf-style hush rule during pressurized kicking attempts.
"We're creating as much pressure as we can on these guys," head coach Matt Nagy said, per Jeff Dickerson of ESPN.com. "We're getting the 'Augusta silence' out here with the team, and that's eerie."
The Bears have a relatively complete roster outside the kicker spot, so this is one of the most important battles of the offseason. It's interesting, though, to see what lengths the Bears are willing to go to find their guy.
Cincinnati Bengals: B.W. Webb Could Be a Free-Agent Steal
The Cincinnati Bengals didn't make many splash moves in free agency. However, they did make some under-the-radar transactions that could pay dividends. The acquisition of cornerback B.W. Webb, who last played for the New York Giants, is looking like one of them.
Webb has been a standout during OTAs, and he's caught the attention of new head coach Zac Taylor.
"He sets a great example, sets a good standard for the other guys on the other side of the ball and this is what it should look like, this is what we want," Taylor said of Webb, per Fletcher Page of the Cincinnati Enquirer. "Happy with the way he's playing right now."
Webb has the potential to be a leader in a secondary that already includes talented cornerbacks Dre Kirkpatrick and William Jackson III.
Cleveland Browns: They Have No Patience for Halfway Committed Players
"You are either on this train or you are not. It is moving," Cleveland Browns quarterback Baker Mayfield said, per Tony Grossi of ESPN.com. His quote was in response to a question about running back Duke Johnson's offseason trade demands.
The Browns are eager to push for their first playoff appearance since 2002, and they're counting on everyone to be committed. While they likely won't part with a top-tier player like Johnson or Odell Beckham Jr.—who skipped most of the offseason up until mandatory minicamp—they will have little patience for most players who aren't all-in.
Take second-year tackle Desmond Harrison, for example. He started at left tackle for the first half of 2018 and, at the very least, projected as a quality depth player in 2019. However, he reported late for minicamp, and the Browns quickly released him.
Cleveland wants players who can—and perhaps more importantly, are willing—to help the team win now. The Browns won't make room for anyone else.
Dallas Cowboys: Dak Prescott Might Have Another Weapon in Reggie Davis
The Dallas Cowboys got another weapon for quarterback Dak Prescott in the form of Randall Cobb this offseason. He and Amari Cooper should be Prescott's top two targets. Another quality target could be emerging, though, and that would make the Dallas passing attack even more formidable.
Third-year wideout Reggie Davis, who was signed to the practice squad last season, has shined in OTAs and appears poised to make an impact.
"He's really understanding how to use his speed," receivers coach Sanjay Lal said, per Jon Machota of the Dallas Morning News. "He's always been fast, but how to truly use it. How to stop better, how to set up DBs, he's doing a great job. And he's finishing plays with catches."
If Davis can emerge as a reliable third or fourth receiver, it will open up options for Prescott and the passing game.
Denver Broncos: Vic Fangio Installing New Schemes 'Quickly'
The Denver Broncos got a new head coach in Vic Fangio this offseason. They also brought in a new offensive coordinator in Rich Scangarello. This means there will be new schemes and terminology on both sides of the ball.
The good news is the players have been learning it all.
"I think the guys are picking things up quickly," Fangio said, per Aric DiLalla of the team's official website. "That's a compliment to the assistant coaches with the job they're doing with these guys, which they did in Phase I and Phase II in the classroom. And it's a compliment to the players that they've been able to transition."
The Broncos also have a new quarterback in 34-year-old Joe Flacco, and they're hoping he has enough left to get them back to the postseason in 2019. Getting the systems in place now will go a long way toward accomplishing that.
Detroit Lions: Danny Amendola Headed Toward Significant Offensive Role
The Detroit Lions signed wide receiver Danny Amendola during the offseason, likely due to his familiarity with head coach Matt Patricia—the two spent time together with the New England Patriots from 2013 to 2017. The move wasn't only about familiarity, though, as the Lions expect Amendola to contribute early and often.
According to Dave Birkett of the Detroit Free Press, Amendola is already seeing a featured role in the offense.
He may be Detroit's No. 2 receiver in 2019—though he'll play in the slot alongside Kenny Golladay and Marvin Jones Jr. It's also worth noting that the team recently added Jermaine Kearse. But the fact that Amendola's already taking on a significant role suggests he will be ready to be a big contributor right away.
Green Bay Packers: Wide Receiver Spots Are 'Up for Grabs'
Davante Adams is the Green Bay Packers' No. 1 wide receiver. However, that's pretty much the only receiver spot that has been solidified through OTAs. According to Michael Cohen of The Athletic, several jobs are there for the taking.
This isn't a shock, as the Packers have several intriguing, yet mostly unproven receivers on the roster—such as Marquez Valdes-Scantling, Equanimeous St. Brown and Geronimo Allison.
According to head coach Matt LaFleur, Green Bay is looking for players to fill very specific roles.
"You need guys that are at a certain area of expertise, and then it's our job as coaches to put those guys into position where they can showcase that skill set," LaFleur said, per Mike Spofford of the team's official website.
The wideout competition should be one of the most fascinating storylines of the Packers' offseason.
Houston Texans: Deshaun Watson Is Getting Even Better
Houston Texans quarterback Deshaun Watson threw for 4,165 yards and 26 touchdowns with just nine interceptions in 2018. The idea that he could be markedly better in 2019 is a little scary. Texans OTAs have showcased a quarterback who is indeed more confident and in more control of Houston's offense.
"He has a better grasp, obviously, every day he works hard at getting better and better at mastering our offense," head coach Bill O'Brien said, per Drew Dougherty of the team's official website. "Understanding what we're doing. Understanding defenses. With experience and all the reps that he's had, whether it's in games or obviously in practices, he gets better and better. Because he works hard at it."
Since Watson missed a large portion of his rookie season with a torn ACL, this is the year he could take that fabled sophomore leap. If he indeed grows as a player—and the Texans get improved offensive line play—Watson could enter the ranks of the elite in 2019.
Indianapolis Colts: New-Look Receiving Corps Not Quite Together Yet
The Indianapolis Colts took steps to improve their receiving corps this offseason. They signed possession receiver Devin Funchess and drafted speedster Parris Campbell in Round 2. However, the new additions have yet to establish themselves in the Colts offense.
"No one has really separated themselves from the pack yet," Kevin Hickey of Colts Wire wrote. "Big-bodied Devin Funchess [6'4", 225 lbs] has flashed a bit during the early portion of OTAs, while Chester Rogers is having a strong spring. Rookie Parris Campbell has seen most of his work on the second team."
The good news is that Indianapolis brings back T.Y. Hilton and Eric Ebron, both of whom were spectacular in 2018. New additions Funchess and Campbell don't have to be significant contributors early in the season for the Colts to still have a dangerous passing attack. What's important is that the pair provides a boost for a stretch playoff run.
Jacksonville Jaguars: The Team Has a Newfound Desire
The Jacksonville Jaguars struggled early and often in 2018, and at times, it felt like some of the players had checked out. That hasn't been the case during OTAs, though, as everyone on the roster appears motivated to kick off the Nick Foles era.
"I've got a real good vibe about it again," defensive lineman Calais Campbell said, per John Oehser of the team's official website. "It's just the way we're working. We're working to get better."
The struggles of quarterback Blake Bortles played a part in Jacksonville's 2018 downfall—and the Jaguars have to be eager to turn the reins over to Foles—but a lack of motivation was also an issue. That looks like it will change in 2019.
"This is a new year, and we have a new team," running back Leonard Fournette said, per Oehser.
Positivity has been a big theme of Jaguars OTAs.
Kansas City Chiefs: Damien Williams Is the Starting Running Back
The Kansas City Chiefs don't have Kareem Hunt at running back anymore, but they do have options. Damien Williams and Darrel Williams both return from last season, and the team added Carlos Hyde in the offseason.
However, offensive coordinator Eric Bieniemy made it clear during OTAs that the plan is for Damien Williams to be the starting running back.
"Damien Williams is our starter," Bieniemy said, per Matt Derrick of ChiefsDigest.com. "We expect him to excel in that role.
It was easy to assume the Chiefs would hold a competition for the starting job that would last throughout the offseason. However, the competition already appears to have been settled.
Los Angeles Chargers: Joey Bosa Is at 100 Percent
Last offseason, Los Angeles Chargers edge-rusher Joey Bosa suffered a foot injury that sidelined him until Week 11. The good news is that he now looks to be 100 percent healthy and should be ready to wreak havoc on opposing quarterbacks in Week 1.
"I'm as fast and strong as I've ever been in my life," Bosa said, per Chris Hayre of the team's official website. "It's just about some little things like my hands and stuff, but as a defensive lineman, you're going to deal with that stuff. I just have to take care of myself in that sense, tape up and keep doing what I'm doing."
It's great to see that Bosa is healthy and working in OTAs. Of course, the real question is whether he'll remain that way through the remainder of the offseason. The Chargers don't need him now. They need him in September through January.
Los Angeles Rams: Todd Gurley May No Longer Be an Every-Down Back
When Los Angeles Rams running back Todd Gurley is at 100 percent, he's one of the most violent, game-breaking runners in the league. The problem is, Gurley hasn't been healthy since the waning weeks of the 2018 regular season.
It's fair to wonder if he's even close to healthy now, as he has been present for OTAs but not on the practice field.
According to NFL Network's Maurice Jones-Drew, who spoke to Gurley earlier this month, the Rams are planning to use Gurley less than they have in the past. This isn't a huge surprise, as Los Angeles re-signed backup Malcolm Brown and drafted Darrell Henderson.
"He may be on the field for 60 or 50 snaps instead of having to be on the field for 16 games playing 80 snaps to 90 snaps a game," Jones-Drew said, per Jeremy Bergman of NFL.com. "That's not gonna happen anymore."
While Gurley may still see games where he's the offensive centerpiece, the Rams are taking things slow with him and putting a Plan B in place.
Miami Dolphins: Josh Rosen Lagging Behind Ryan Fitzpatrick
The Miami Dolphins traded for 2018 first-round pick Josh Rosen during the draft to assess his ability to be a long-term starter. So far, however, journeyman Ryan Fitzpatrick appears to be the better starting option.
Fitzpatrick has taken most of the first-team reps during OTAs and has regularly outplayed his second-year counterpart.
"As has been the case in those previous practices, Fitzpatrick appeared to have the better day," Barry Jackson of the Miami Herald wrote after one recent practice.
This shouldn't come as a major shock, of course, as Rosen has only been with the team since late April, while Fitzpatrick is a seasoned vet with experience in a plethora of offensive systems. If Rosen continues to lag behind in training camp, though, he'll have a difficult time getting onto the field early in the regular season.
Minnesota Vikings: Laquon Treadwell Could Be on the Roster Bubble
Minnesota Vikings wide receiver Laquon Treadwell has not lived up to his status as a 2016 first-round draft pick. Though the Vikings have tried to utilize him as a third receiver alongside Adam Thielen and Stefon Diggs, Treadwell appears to have lost that role.
According to Arif Hasan of The Athletic, offseason acquisition Jordan Taylor has been working as the No. 3 wideout in OTAs.
If Taylor can establish himself as Minnesota's No. 3, it could mean the end of the Treadwell experiment. Though the Vikings would take a $3.1 million cap hit by releasing Treadwell, they would open up a roster spot for a player who can contribute consistently on offense.
New England Patriots: The Return of Jamie Collins Could Be Huge
At some point during the 2016 season, the New England Patriots lost patience with freelancing former Pro Bowl linebacker Jamie Collins—so they traded him to the Browns. However, the Patriots brought him back this offseason in a bit of a surprise move.
If Collins' performances in OTAs are any indication, he'll be a big part of the New England defense this season.
ESPN.com's Mike Reiss described Collins as "active and looking like a key cog."
The Athletic's Nick Underhill reported that Collins "stood out" with his ability to affect quarterback's throwing lanes.
Collins has shined in the Patriots defense before, helping them win Super Bowl XLIX. He could shine once again in 2019.
New Orleans Saints: Teddy Bridgewater Showing Improvement
There's a chance quarterback Teddy Bridgewater will one day take over for Drew Brees as the New Orleans Saints' franchise signal-caller. Therefore, it's good to see progress from the 2014 first-round pick in his second offseason with the team.
With Brees out dealing with a court dispute, Bridgwater ran the first-team offense in OTAs and indeed looks better than he did a year ago.
"It's his second year in what we're doing and you see it when he's getting through his progressions and in and out of the huddle," head coach Sean Payton said, per Rod Walker of the New Orleans Advocate. "He's doing well."
Saints fans hope they won't need to see Bridgewater starting in 2019, but his continued progress is a sign that New Orleans will be able to survive for a game or two if Brees does miss time.
New York Giants: Daniel Jones Is Picking Things Up Quickly
The New York Giants plan to have quarterback Eli Manning start for at least another season. Eventually, though, he will turn the reins over to rookie first-round pick Daniel Jones. If OTAs are any indication, Jones could be ready for the handoff sooner than later.
"He's got a fast mind, he picks things up pretty well," offensive coordinator Mike Shula said, per Dan Schneier of 247Sports. "The things that you ask him to do to maybe make a couple changes, maybe that were different to what he was used to in college, he does pretty quickly. Whether or not it's technique in the pocket, everything that we have asked him to do he's done it pretty quickly."
It's good to hear Jones is picking things up, but the rookie has a long way to go before he shows he's a better option than two-time Super Bowl-winner Manning.
New York Jets: This Team Is Full of Attitude
The biggest takeaway from New York Jets OTAs is this team has attitude. As defensive lineman Leonard Williams explained, head coach Adam Gase and defensive coordinator Gregg Williams are bringing some competitive fire to the roster.
"That's one thing I've been loving so much about this year so far, the competitiveness," Williams said, via the team's official website. "... Having those two go at it at practice kind of trickles down to the players, who go at it, too."
The Jets were largely—outside rookie quarterback Sam Darnold—nondescript in 2018. It was pretty much Darnold and everyone else. This year, though, New York has Darnold, Le'Veon Bell, and a pair of coaches who are looking to bring some swagger back to the Jets franchise.
They should be anything but boring in 2019.
Oakland Raiders: The Addition of Burfict Is Paying Dividends
Linebacker Vontaze Burfict was labeled many things during his time with the Bengals. He was viewed as a hard-hitter, an enforcer and often, a dirty player. He wasn't considered much of a mentor or leader, though, but that's exactly what he's shaping up to be for the Oakland Raiders.
"His ability to connect with the younger players and help teach them Paul Guenther's defense is impressive," Marcus Mosher of Raiders Wire wrote. "Multiple players, including Maurice Hurst and Tahir Whitehead, have already mentioned his leadership ability and his intelligence."
Because of Burfict's checkered past on the field—and his many fines and suspensions—it was easy to be skeptical about his inclusion on the new-look Raiders. However, coach Jon Gruden and general manager Mike Mayock saw his potential to help teach Guenther's system—the coach spent four years as Cincinnati's defensive coordinator—and the move to get him appears to be paying off.
Philadelphia Eagles: The Receiving Corps Will Be Excellent
The Philadelphia Eagles appear poised to have one of the NFL's best receiving corps this season. We already know how big of an impact guys like Alshon Jeffery, Nelson Agholor and Zach Ertz can have in head coach Doug Pederson's offense. Tight end Dallas Goedert showed plenty of promise as a rookie, and former Eagles speedster DeSean Jackson made his return this offseason via a trade.
The wild card in the group is rookie second-round pick J.J. Arcega-Whiteside. Based on OTAs, he's already looking like a potential draft steal.
"His ability to high-point the ball is impressive, and his route-running prowess deserves some credit as well," Mike Kaye of NJ.com wrote. "Arcega-Whiteside was sprinkled in with the first-team offense and had some strong moments."
As long as quarterback Carson Wentz stays healthy for a full season, the Eagles passing attack will be one of the NFL's best.
Pittsburgh Steelers: Devin Bush Already Looking Like a Star
It's difficult to tell just how good players will be based on OTA performances alone. However, the early reports on Pittsburgh Steelers rookie linebacker Devin Bush are encouraging.
"He seems a natural flying around the field in however limited these conditions are," Jacob Klinger of Penn Live wrote. "Short of tackling people and intercepting some passes, there's only so much more Bush can do to stand out before football games start."
The Steelers traded up to the 10th overall pick to land Bush. It appears that bold decision could pay off soon.
San Francisco 49ers: Wes Welker Working to Motivate Wide Receivers
Did you know former NFL receiver and five-time Pro Bowler Wes Welker was a member of the San Francisco 49ers coaching staff? His addition as a receivers coach in February flew under the radar thanks to impending free agency and the upcoming draft, but Welker was out front, coaching San Francisco's young wideouts in OTAs.
His presence is notable because the 49ers have several young receivers on the roster—including rookies Deebo Samuel and Jalen Hurd. If there's a guy who knows what it takes for a young receiver to succeed, it's Welker.
"We love having him around with just all of his experience that he has," wideout Trent Taylor said of Welker, via the team's official website. "Throughout his career, he's ran all the routes that we run in our offense; the same type of mindset. Just to be able to hear his thought process through it all, the way he looks at things, it's a different type of perspective."
An undrafted free agent out of Texas Tech in 2004, the undersized Welker (5'9", 185 lbs) went on to become a two-time first-team All-Pro and one of the most dangerous slot men in the NFL. He's a shining example of what San Francisco's young pass-catchers can become with some hard work and determination.
Seattle Seahawks: Rashaad Penny Is Ready to Make an Impact
Early in his rookie campaign, Seattle Seahawks running back Rashaad Penny was mostly a disappointment. He struggled to get onto the field, and he struggled to make an impact when he did. However, he came on late in the season as a role player and helped Seattle make a playoff run.
Now, with a full NFL season under his belt, Penny looks prepared to take charge of his role and be an offensive playmaker.
"I'm really pleased with the way he is attacking practice right now," offensive coordinator Brian Schottenheimer said, per Bob Condotta of the Seattle Times. "I think last year he didn't know what he didn't know. Now he's got some leadership ability; he's getting a ton of reps because obviously Chris [Carson] is out. But it's been fun to watch him grow."
Expect Penny to perform like the 2018 first-round pick that he is.
Tampa Bay Buccaneers: Todd Bowles Is Making the Defense Better
The Tampa Bay Buccaneers took steps to improve their defense this offseason, drafting linebacker Devin White in Round 1 and signing defensive tackle Ndamukong Suh to replace Gerald McCoy. However, the addition of creative defensive coordinator Todd Bowles could be the biggest move of all.
It's early—and the pads aren't yet on—but it looks like Bowles will flex enough creativity to get the most out of Tampa's defense.
"The side of the ball that seemed to benefit from the efficiency was the defense," Carmen Vitali of the team's official website wrote. "They were simulating pressure and breaking up passes all afternoon. There was a lot of creative 'pressure,' too. It came from all over the field and kept the offense guessing."
With new head coach Bruce Arians coaching a high-flying passing attack on the offense and Bowles coaching an aggressive attacking scheme on the defense, the Buccaneers should be a lot of fun to watch in 2019.
Tennessee Titans: Anthony Ratliff-Williams Could Be a UDFA Steal
The Tennessee Titans signed former North Carolina wide receiver Anthony Ratliff-Williams as an undrafted free agent, and it's looking like he'll boost their receiving corps.
"Ratliff-Williams is a heck of an athlete," Jim Wyatt of the team's official website wrote. "He went up high to make a catch on the sideline on Tuesday, but was ruled out of bounds. In an OTA last month, Ratliff-Williams made the catch of the offseason so far by snagging a ball out of the air in tight coverage."
If Ratliff-Williams continues to shine, he'll make the 53-man roster. He has the potential to be a weapon on the outside along with Corey Davis and fellow rookie A.J. Brown—with free-agent acquisition Adam Humphries in the slot—when the Titans go four wide.
This would be a great development for a team that's trying to finally get the most out of quarterback Marcus Mariota.
Washington Redskins: Cam Sims Could Boost the Receiving Corps
Regardless of whether they have Dwayne Haskins or Case Keenum under center in Week 1, the Washington Redskins need to get more out of their receiving corps in 2019. Last year's unit lacked a clear No. 1 receiver and was underwhelming overall.
Fortunately, 2018 undrafted free agent Cam Sims appears poised to give the receiver group a boost. An ankle injury cut short his rookie season after just one game, but Sims is healthy and stood out during OTAs.
"For the second straight open practice, Cam Sims found himself hauling in passes all over the secondary," Peter Hailey of NBC Sports Washington wrote. "The second-year wideout is thrilled to be playing again after getting hurt super early in 2018 and is doing what he can to be a friendly target for his passers."
Sims probably won't emerge as Washington's No. 1 receiver this season, but he's shaping up to be a much-needed complementary weapon.