Spurs lost 2-0 to the Reds in what was their first Champions League final, and Kane wants to get there again.
He told Sky Sports: "I think it just motivates you to get better. With the Champions League final, you want to play in those games all the time. We know it's going to be tough to get back there this year and it's down to us to perform."
Liverpool overcame the disappointment of losing to Real Madrid in the 2018 final to beat Tottenham this year.
The Reds also racked up 97 points in the Premier League. That was 26 more than the Lilywhites accrued, showing the level of superiority Liverpool enjoyed over Tottenham last season.
It still wasn't enough for Liverpool to end their 29-year wait to win England's top division, as Manchester City finished the campaign one point ahead.
Despite the gulf between Spurs and the top two, Kane said they'll be targeting the title next season:
"That's always the aim. The manager has full trust in the squad. Whoever he gets in or gets rid of, that's his choice; he's the boss.
"Whatever happens from now until the end of the window, we know we've got a strong enough squad to compete. The top six is really tight so we just want to put a good run together."
Spurs boss Mauricio Pochettino has transformed the club into consistent top-four finishers over his five seasons in north London, and the fact they did so last season alongside the run to the Champions League final without having signed a single player since January 2018 is all the more impressive.
Tottenham have ended their transfer drought by bringing in Tanguy Ndombele this summer. The Frenchman could prove an excellent addition to their squad, but more recruitment will be needed for them to match City or Liverpool's quality and strength in depth.
A title challenge will also require Kane to remain fit for more of the campaign.
The striker was a key player for Spurs last season, but injuries caused him to miss 10 league games:
The team also lost 13 matches, compared to City's four defeats or Liverpool's one.
Even if City and Liverpool both fall short of last season's standards, it will still take a significant improvement from Spurs to catch them.