According to ESPN.com's Jesse Rogers, Carpenter tied the mark by going 5-for-5 with three home runs and two doubles at Wrigley Field in Chicago.
The last player to record five extra-base hits in a single game prior to Carpenter was Cubs third baseman Kris Bryant against the Cincinnati Reds in 2016.
Additionally, Carpenter became just the second player in the modern era of Major League Baseball to finish with three homers and two doubles in the same game. Bryant was also the last.
Per Baseball-Almanac.com, 13 other players have registered five extra-base hits in a single game.
The 32-year-old Carpenter led off the game with a solo home run off Cubs starter Jon Lester before blasting a two-run homer off Lester in the second.
He then doubled twice in the fourth inning, and later tied the record with a three-run jack off Cubs reliever Brian Duensing in the sixth:
Carpenter was denied the chance to break the record for most extra-base hits in a game when he was removed in the bottom of the sixth inning.
He also fell one home run short of tying the single-game record of four, which was last tied by then-Arizona Diamondbacks outfielder J.D. Martinez in September.
By virtue of his big game, which also included seven RBI, Carpenter is now hitting .274 with 23 home runs and 51 RBI on the season.
Despite the win, the Cards still trail the Cubs by 7.5 games in the National League Central.