Matt Moore will start in Cutler's place.
Cutler is 4-2 as a starter this season, throwing for 995 yards, seven touchdowns and five interceptions.
After Cutler was knocked out of the team's Week 7 game against the Jets, Moore threw for 188 yards, two touchdowns and one pick en route to a 31-28 overtime triumph.
Moore made three starts in place of an injured Ryan Tannehill last season, going 2-1. He also started Miami's playoff loss to the Pittsburgh Steelers in January, throwing for 289 yards, one touchdown and one interception.
The 34-year-old Cutler is in the midst of his first season with the Dolphins after coming out of retirement and delaying a broadcasting deal he signed with Fox.
Cutler spent the previous eight campaigns with the Chicago Bears.
He made the Pro Bowl in 2008 and has thrown for 20 or more touchdowns in a single season on six occasions, most recently in 2015.
With 10 games left to play, the Dolphins entered Thursday's action in a playoff position in the AFC at 4-2.