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Related article: testing of drugs. He was to present us a paper, but was unable Buy Plavix Online to do so in time Dr.
E. M. Houghton, of Detroit. I will ask him to open the Buy Plavix Online general discussion.
Dr. Houghton : Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen : I have listened to the papers read
this afternoon on the subject of physiological assay with a great deal of interest. The
Section should be congratulated upon the excellent papers read. While listening to
them I recalled vividly to mind the situation exactly ten years ago, when I read a paper
before the same Section on this subject. From the comments of the listeners of the
previous paper, the writer was inclined to feel that he had entered the wrong pew, and
that possibly physiological assay would never become a topic of much interest to the
members of the American Pharmaceutical Association; but time certainly changes ideas
as well as heals wounds, for to-day the subject is of enough interest to hll this room with
expectant and interested listeners, and in fact we find the subject of physiological assay
is being taken Buy Plavix Online up in the foremost countries of the world and, instead of being condemned,
is lauded as quite the proper method for satisfactorily determining the value of important
A number of questions have been brought up in the papers upon which I desire to offer Buy Plavix Online
a few comments, as follows :
Shall Buy Plavix Online we use warm or cold blooded animals for test purposes? Some 14 or 15 years
ago, when considering the feasibility of devising methods for Buy Plavix Online the physiological assay of
drugs, this question came up very forcibly, but, after two or three years of continuous
experimentation on the subject, using a variety of animals, dogs, rats, mice, guinea-pigs,
and frogs, I concluded that the latter animals were far and away the most desirable for
the purpose intended, chiefly because they could be obtained at almost any time of the
year in large quantities and in uniform size and species, also because in the case of the
heart tonics the action of the drugs upon the heart muscle could be better studied, since
paralysis of the respiratory centre does not produce death in these animals which have
the faculty of breathing through the moistened skin when the lung ceases to act.
One of the gentlemen spoke of the use of cats. Personally I cannot believe these
animals would ever become popular for this purpose. I well remember an incident that
happened while I was doing post-graduate work at the University of Michigan, where
we were employing cats for our experiments. We had a young cartman subsidized to
bring us cats, but we could not get them at any reasonable price. Work became urgent
944 MINUIES or THE SECTION ON SCIENTIHC PAPERS.
about the time of the Christmas Holidays, when one could get away from the classroom
to better advantage, and I said to him : " John, can't you get us some cats somewhere?
He replied : ** How many ? " And I said : ** Bring on as many as you can get bold of."
Much to my surprise just after finishing my Christmas dinner, who should come op the
steps but John, and informed me that he had a whole sleigh-load of cats I believe there
were about 35 of them. What Buy Plavix Online to do with them was a serious question for the momeot
but not so serious as the disposition of anxious inquirers for lost pets. It had been with
much misgiving, since this experience, that 1 have thought of using felines for laboratory
experiments. It seems that John and a partner the night before had made a raid in the
town, and we were to hear of it later. Any way so far as I am concerned I shall alwayi
feel like avoiding the use of these animals wherever possible, and I am sure that our
vivisection friends would criticize us much more severely for using cats than where such
animals as guinea-pigs or frogs were employed. For these reasons and others not men-
tioned it was found desirable to use frogs in place of warm-blooded animals. Since
1894 we have used them in great numbers in our work, and I have not seen any real
need for changing the test animal.
There may be considerable variation in the frogs obtained from different sources at
different times of the year, but it makes comparatively little difference as to the kind
and quality of frogs used provided the variation in resistance is carefully noted by testing
the standard under identically the same conditions. You must know the resistance of
your frogs toward the standard by which you are to measure the value of the unknown.
For several years we have employed Buy Plavix Online a tincture of strophanthus made according to the
U. S. P. 1S90, and have found the product to be very stable.
At this meeting I hoped to present a paper upon the particular subject of standards,
and to bring to your attention a chemically-pure, crystalline strophanthin obtained from
undoubted strophanthus Kombe seeds, but unfortunately the time was too short to fully
complete the work, and I can only say that the strophanthin occurs in beautiful white
crystals. The seeds contained in the original pods had been identified by Prof. Holmes
nf London, and were a special importation. 1 believe the use of this strophanthin as a
standard would be of great importance, Buy Plavix Online as it would be a decided step in advance. In
the paper which will be published in the near future will be given full details as to method
of isolation, identification and such, so that it should not be difficult for a trained chemist
or pharmacist anywhere in the world, if they obtain the Buy Plavix Online strophanthus Kombe seeds, to
succeed in isolating the material for their- standard that would be the same as that
As to the method of assay as discussed by Dr. Hale, this does not differ materially
from methods that I have reported on several times during the past fifteen years. The
chief element of difference is the time at which we read the end results, Dr. Hale pre-
ferring to examine the heart of the frog one hour after the administration of the poison.
In England it has been decided to adopt Buy Plavix Online three hours, while in my work I have used
death as the final criterion for reading end results. I have some work under way st
the present time to show exactly what influence the element of time may have in this
matter, but am convinced that for practical purposes it is best to wait until sufficient lime Buy Plavix Online
has elapsed for the animals to all succumb, rather than to make a determination from
the readings made at any time before. However, there may not be a great difference in
the final results obtained.
There are a great many questions in connection with the physiological assay of drugs
that I should like to consider, but I do not wish to burden you with too much discussion.
One point especially that I believe the forthcoming Pharmacopoeial Revision Committee
should keep carefully in mind is the importance of checking up any improvements in
methods by proper attention to the physiological properties of the resulting products.
To illustrate : in the 1900 Pharmacopoeia it was decided to change the menstruum for
Digitized by VjOOQ IC
PHYSIOLOGICAL TESTING OF DRUGS. 945
flnidextract of squill. The resulting product, as shown by a paper published in the
Journal of the A. M. A. several years ago, when using the new menstruuni, was very mugh
inferior to that obtained by the old menstruum, at the same time presenting Buy Plavix Online very great
difficulties from a manufacturing pharmaceutical point of view. To a lesser extent the
tame evil occurred when the menstruum for the 6uidextract of digitalis was changed to
contain a smaller percentage of alcohol, the resulting flnidextract being very much in-
ferior to that prepared where a menstruum approaching that used for the Buy Plavix Online tincture of dig-
italis is employed. 1 hope these and other errors that crept in through the lack of ap-
plicabon of physiological methods may be eliminated i n the next edition of the Pharma-
As to standards, it seems to me that it would be wise for us to get together and in
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