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Related article: Hyoscyamus was mentioned by Dioscorides in the first century, and has been used
continuously in domestic medicine. It was introduced into practice by Stoerck in the
middle of the eighteenth century. He also introduced Stramonium. Mandragora
(Mandrake) was the subject of some interesting medieval myths. The "herbarium"
of Apuleius (eleventh century), quotes its use, externally, for headache and insomnia,
and internally for mania.
Chemical Structure and Relations. These alkaloids are ester-like
combinations of certain bases with organic acids of the aromatic series.
Atropin, (Ci7H 23 NO 3 ),is the tropeic acid ester of abase, tropin, and is
isomeric with Hyoscyamin; hyoscyamin being levorotary, whilst atropin
is racemic. The esters of tropin are called tropeins. Homotropin is the
mandelic ester of tropin; and other tropeins occur naturally or may be
prepared synthetically. Neurontin Buy Tropin itself is closely related to Ecgonin, the
basic constituent of cocain. Its effects and those of a series of its syn-
thetic esters have been investigated comparatively by Gottlieb, 1896. The
osceins are analogous esters of the base oscin. The tropeic acid ester con-
stitutes the important alkaloid Scopolamin or hyoscin, (CnH^iNC^).
This also occurs in isomeric forms: Air oscin (racemic, corresponding to
Atropin); and Scopolamin proper (levorotary corresponding to Hyos-
278 . MANUAL OF PHARMACOLOGY
cyamin). Atropin and Atroscin are the more stable products: Alkalies
and many other agents convert hyoscyamin into atropin, scopolamin into
atroscin.
Chemic Constitution. Tropin Neurontin Buy has the formula
CH 2 CH CH 2 (a)
N.CH 3 CHOH (b)
CH 2 CH CH 2
Ecgonin (the base of cocain) is the beta carbo-acid of tropin, one H at (a) being
replaced by COOH.
Atropin is the tropeic ester of tropin, the H at (b) being replaced by the radical
CO CH C Neurontin Buy 6 H 6
CH 2 OH
The sulphuric ester of atropin is nearly devoid of peripheral actions, while the central
effects, especially the respiratory stimulation, are preserved. Scopolamin-sulphuric
ester does not share this respiratory action (Trendelenburg, 1913).
Belladonnin and Atropamin are isomeric alkaloids (belladonnic acid tropeins). Their
formula differs from atropin by the absence of a molecule of H 2 O. They are present in
the plants in very small amount, and it is possible that they are only formed during the Neurontin Buy
extraction.
Distribution of Alkaloids. Belladonna and Stramonium contain mainly atropin and
hyoscyamin; one or the Neurontin Buy other alkaloid may predominate. The hyoscyamin is the most
widely distributed of these alkaloids, and is especially abundant in young parts of the
plants, whereas older parts contain more atropin. It appears therefore that the hyos-
cyamin is the original alkaloid, and that it is partly transformed into atropin in the
plant itself, and also during Neurontin Buy extraction. These plants also contain small traces of scopo-
lamin and atroscin, but the latter alkaloids are relatively more abundant in Hyoscyamus
and Scopola, taking the principal part in the actions of these plants. The distribution
and variation of the alkaloids in individual plants has been studied by Sievers, 1913 and
1914. This suggests the feasibility of improving the alkaloidal content by selective
breeding (Sievers, 1915).
Effects on Psychic Functions. Therapeutic doses of atropin have no
perceptible effects on the psychic functions; but overdoses produce symp-
toms (see "Toxicology") superficially resembling alcoholic inebriation.
However, the exaltation and stimulation are more prominent, passing
from mere restlessness to hallucinations and delirium, and even mania;
and the effects are much more lasting. Similar symptoms are seen in
animals. With toxic doses the stimulation passes into coma, convulsions,
and asphyxia.
The convulsions are not entirely asphyxial, for they are not abolished by artificial
respiration.
The vision is disturbed more than can be explained by loss of accommodation.
The motor areas in dogs are stated by some observers to be more excitable, but others
deny this.
In frogs, atropin first increases the reflexes; this is followed by general paralysis, and
this again by late tetanus.
Respiration. Therapeutic doses, in man (i mg. hypodermically),
stimulate respiration, increasing somewhat the rate Neurontin Buy and minute volume,
and sometimes the depth of the respiration. The excitability of the
respiratory center is Neurontin Buy not increased directly, however; for the alveolar
COo tension is unchanged, whereas it would be found lower if the threshold
of the center were lowered. The stimulation is therefore indirect; being
due partly to increased CC>2 production (increased gaseous metabolism);
partly to increased " dead space" in the lungs by bronchial dilation (Edsall
ATROPIN
279
and Means, 1914; Higgins and Means, 1915). Toxic doses produce a
late depression of the center (Binz, 1896), which is the usual cause of
death in atropin poisoning.
Respiration in Animal Experiments. The results have been rather contradictory;
Heinz, 1890, found no appreciable change in the respiratory volume of rabbits; Wood
and Cerna, 1892, increased rate and minute volume in dogs. According to most ob-
servers, it counteracts respiratory Neurontin Buy depression from chloral (Husemann, 1877) or morphin
(Henbach, 1878; Binz, 1887; Vollmer, 1892); but others found that it augments the mor-
phin depression (Orlowski, 1891; Unverricht, 1892 and 1896). With larger doses, the
psychic excitement and muscular activity would increase the respiration indirectly.
Toxic doses depress respiration, producing slowing, Cheyne-Stokes type, and finally ces-
sation. Artificial respiration may enable an animal to survive six times the ordinary
fatal dose.
Therapeutic Uses of Respiratory Stimulation. The mechanism of this respiratory
action in man would render its usefulness doubtful. On the basis of the animal experi-
ments (which, however, involve larger doses) it has been used against poisoning by mor- '
phin, and as a preliminary to anesthesia, or even as a restorative in anesthetic fatalities
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