Special Internet Prices.
Fast & Guaranteed worldwide Delivery!
Secure & FAST Online ordering.
Our Drugstore Is The Most Trusted Online Drug Supplier.
>> CLICK HERE TO ENTER >>>
Related article: dosage does not affect the contraction on direct muscular irritation (ba-
rium, strophanthin, cathartics).
The action consists presumably in depression of the augmentory vagus
276 MANUAL OF PHARMACOLOGY
Intermediate doses of atropin (from therapeutic to fatal), seem to act
differently, according to conditions and species. In man (Katsch, 1913),
in rabbits, and in some cats (Hirz, 1913), 'they cause further depression and
relaxation of the intestinal tone.
In typical cats (Magnus) they increase the movements of the normal
intestines (i.e., unless there is vagus-spasm). This occurs also in the
excised intestine, but not in plexus-free preparations. The segmentation
movements also become more regular. The action consists apparently
in stimulation of the Auerbach ganglion cells. Larger doses also paralyze
the inhibitory splanchnic endings.
Extreme doses of atropin (so large that they can not be brought into action by sys-
temic application, but only locally and in the excised intestine) paralyze successively
the ganglion cells, the endings, and the muscle, thus destroying the response to the mus-
cular Naprosyn Naproxen poisons such as barium.
In the excised intestine, the relative doses of atropin are as follows: o.i per cent, is
required to produce depression; 0.025 to produce stimulation; and 0.0005 to antagonize
Nicotin also has complex actions: In the first place, it paralyzes the
extrinsic ganglia (both the vagus and splanchnic) rendering ineffective
the stimulation of their preganglionic fibers. The nicotin paralysis is
preceded by a short stimulation, which occurs after degeneration of the
preganglionic fibers and must therefore involve the ganglion cells. These
effects on the extrinsic ganglia are practically overshadowed by the periph-
Nicotin produces violent peristalsis, proceeding to intense spasmodic
contracture. This occurs in the excised intestine, but not in the plexus-
free preparation. It is therefore due to stimulation of Naprosyn Naproxen the Auerbach cells.
This stimulation is preceded by a temporary inhibition, which appears
to be in the endings.
Very large Naprosyn Naproxen doses (local application) abolish the segmentation movements, but the
peristaltic reflex persists. Large doses of atropin abolish the nicotin contraction by
Epinephrin. This inhibits the normal intestinal movements; as also
those produced by atropin, nicotin, pilocarpin, and strophanthin, but not
those of barium. This inhibition occurs in plexus-free preparations, and
after degeneration of the postganglionic fibers, and is therefore located in
the myoneural junction.
Apocodein paralyzes the sympathetic ganglia, thus abolishing inhibition on splanch-
nic stimulation. In the isolated intestine, it first stimulates the Auerbach cells, and Naprosyn Naproxen
then paralyzes the endings or muscle.
Autonomic Poisons on White Cells. The proportion of these cells is changed, the
significance being obscure. Pilocarpin and cholin increase, atropin diminishes the
eosinophiles and lymphocytes. Epinephrin increases the lymphocytes but diminishes
the eosinophiles. Histamin also diminishes the eosinophiles (Port and Brunow, 1914)
Summary of Actions. Atropin and Naprosyn Naproxen other closely related alkaloids
(hyoscyamin, scopolamin, etc.) produce a variety of peripheral and central
i. Complete paralysis of the peripheral distribution (myoneural junc-
tion) of the parasympathetic (cranio-sacral autonomic) nerves (oculomotor,
secretory, bronchial musculature, cardiac and intestinal vagus, uterus,
2. Consequently, antagonism to pilocarpin, muscarin, physostigmin,
3. Slight stimulation and in large doses, subsequent paralysis of smooth
and cardiac muscle and other cells.
4. Slight peripheral sensory paralysis, on local application.
5. Excitation and then paralysis of certain cerebral and medullary
These actions find varied application in therapeutics, and are of great
Specificity of the Autonomic Actions. The peripheral actions of atropin are con-
fined mainly to the Naprosyn Naproxen augmentory nerves of the cranio-sacral division of the autonomic
system. To this there are a few exceptions; for it affects also inhibitory cranial nerves
(cardiac vagus) and a few augmentory and inhibitory sympathetic nerves (uterus and
sweat glands) (Cushny, 1910).
Occurrence. Atropin occurs in a number of drugs (Belladonna,
Stramonium, Hyoscyamus, Scopola, Mandragora, Duboisia, etc.) derived
from plants belonging to the order Solanaceae (the potato family). These
also contain varying proportions of other alkaloids (hyoscyamin, scopo-
lamin, etc.) which are closely related to atropin in structure and in action.
The alkaloids, as first isolated, were mixtures; consequently, their
properties appeared to vary with the origin, and these mixtures were given
specific names (Daturin, Duboisin, etc.). The pretended difference be-
tween scopolamin and "hyoscin" is a survival of this tradition.
Historical. Belladonna received but little medical notice, and seems to have been
first introduced into practice, as an anodyne, about 1860.
The first indubitable notice of belladonna occurs in 1504, but it then came quickly
into use for poisoning and cosmetic purposes. The Naprosyn Naproxen name Atropos, which Linne gave to
the plant, is from the oldest of the Three Fates, who cuts the thread of life. Belladonna
comes from the Italian "handsome woman," as it was used to give luster Naprosyn Naproxen to the eyes.
On account of the slow course and the obscure symptoms, belladonna was a favorite
with professional poisoners in the middle ages, and this abuse in regard to several species
of Datura (Stramonium) has existed in India since remote ages. The name itself is
Related post: Lexapro Purchase Online, Cheap Clomid, Buy Imitrex, Cheapest Propecia Online, Clomid Pct Dosage, Imitrex Cost Canada, Nolvadex Pct, Singulair Mg, Imitrex Brand, Imitrex Tablets Supplied