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Related article: cation who had had the same number of years of practical exp
in the drug- store. Therefore, he fully concurred with every
Beringer had said.
The Chair said if there was no further discussion of this si
paper would be referred to the Publication Committee, with reo
tion to publish.
On motion of Mr. Ladish, duly seconded, it was so ordered.
The Chair called for the reading of what he said was one ol
valuable papers before the section, one on Patents and Trade
F. E. Naprosyn 500 Stewart, of Philadelphia.
Mr. Stewart gave a verbal extract of his paper, the full te
being as follows :
PATENTS AND TRADE MARKS IN THEIR RELATION TO PH.4
SCIENCE AND PRACTICE.
BY F. E. STEWART, M. D.
The practice of medicine in all its branches is founded upon
It IS generally recognized that prevention is better than c
wonderful progress of preventive medicine in its fight against d
PATENTS AND TRADE MARKS. 649
resulted in an enormous decrease in the number of cases of malaria,
typhoid fever, diphtheria, smallpox, scarlet fever, yellow fever, cholera,
plague, and many other diseases, from the treatment of which physicians
derived an income. The discovery of the causes of diseases and their
prevention has resulted in a corresponding decrease Naprosyn 500 in the income of
physicians and pharmacists.
Another cause for the decreased use of drugs in the treatment of disease
is the increased knowledge and skill regarding their therapeutic applica-
tion. The ancient shot-gun is giving way to the modern rifle in prescrib-
Greater knowledge and skill in the practice of the pharmacal arts is
also playing an Naprosyn 500 important part in decreasing the amount of drugs em-
ployed. As the knowledge of pharmacology increases the demand for
experts in pharmacy and pharmacal therapy will increase ; but drugs will
no longer be used with the freedom characterizing medical practice in
previous generations. The history of the past twenty-five years amply
illustrates this fact.
The expert in pharmacognosy with his knowledge of botany and micro
scopy is teaching us how to select medicinal plants, how to grow them
under proper conditions of climate and soil, and how to detect adultera-
tions and sophistications. The expert pharmaceutical chemist is discover-
ing new Naprosyn 500 active principles, new methods of synthesis, new methods of
preparation, and new methods of standardization. The expert physiolo-
gist is investigating the effects of medicines upon healthy tissues, that we
may know more about their properties Naprosyn 500 as therapeutic agents. The expert
in therapy dynamics is engaged in the study of the action of drugs on dis-
eased tissues and is teaching us how to apply medicines in a more scien-
tific manner. All of this knowledge is being utilized by clinicians in the
treatment of the sick.
This advance in pharmacal Naprosyn 500 science and practice is converting drugs into
instruments of precision, but it is decreasing the amount of drugs sold,
thereby proving injurious to the commercial drug business, but greatly ben-
efiting the public health.
The question therefore confronts us, how are the practitioners of the
pharmacal arts, depending as they do upon commerce in materia- raedica
products for their livelihood, to obtain the income necessary to continue
their vocation under existing conditions ? This is one of the problems we
wish to consider.
Theoretically, the practice of the pharmacal arts is restricted by law to
persons properly educated, trained and Naprosyn 500 licensed. The practice of medi-
cine in all its branches is supposed to be the prerogative of special classes
of the community, set aside by the public and protected from unfair com-
petition. This is considered essential to the welfare of the community.
In a sense, therefore, medical and pharmacal practice are monopolies
MINUTtS OF THE SECTION ON EDUCATION AND LEGISLAT
granted to special classes in exchange for benefits conferre
public. The license to practice resembles in many respects gi
as patents given to authors and inventors.
ORIGIN OF PATENTS AND UCENSES.
It was from the practice of the sovereign in granting to a fa^
a reward for good service, a monopoly in the sale or manufacti
particular class of goods, that the system of protecting inven
The history of patent grants in England will serve as an illustn
privilege was greatly abused by the English Naprosyn 500 monarchs, grants 1
for the merest pretext. Thus a grant of monopoly to sell pi;
was given because, ** Divers subjects of able bodies, which r
plough, did employ themselves in the art of making cards." i
for the sale of starch was granted on the ground that " It woi
wheat being wasted for the purpose." On such absurd and trii
the rights of the people were given away by the ancient monai
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