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Related article: ency of a soft extract, dissolved in the reserved portion, and menstruum
added to make the required volume.
Type -processes for Fluidextracts. The following are described by the U.S. P. :
Type A. The powdered drug is moistened and macerated with the menstruum as
described under tinctures, the maceration being prolonged to forty-eight hours. The
percolation is then started, and continued by the addition of menstruum, until 850
c.c. of percolate have been collected for 1,000 Gm. of drug. This is reserved and
percolation continued, with additional menstruum, until the drug is exhausted. These
later percolates are evaporated to a soft extract, below 6oC., dissolved in the reserved
portion, and diluted with menstruum to make 1,000 c.c.
Type B. This is employed when two successive menstrua are used, the first con-
taining glycerin, acid, etc. In this case, the powdered drug is moistened and macerated
with the first menstruum. The percolation is then started, and continued with the
plain alcoholic menstruum. Otherwise, the process is identical with Type A.
Type C. Fractional or Divided Percolation. This is used for drugs containing con-
stituents that are volatile or injured Cheap Lopressor by heat. It may also be used in place of Type A.
The drug is divided into three portions of 500 Gm., 300 Gm. and 200 Gm. The first
portion is then moistened and macerated, as usual. The first 200 c.c. of percolate are
reserved; and the percolation then continued, collecting five additional portions of 300
The second 300 Gm. portion of drug is moistened with the first 300 c.c. percolate
of the preceding percolation; and macerated and percolated, as usual. The first
300 c.c. of percolate are reserved; and the percolation continued with the successive
portions of the percolate from the first drug, until exhausted. These weaker percolates
are collected in 200 c.c. portions.
The third 200 Gm. portion of Cheap Lopressor the drug is moistened with the first 200 c.c. percolate
of the second drug, macerated and percolated with the successive weak portions of the
percolate of the second drug, until 500 c.c. are obtained. This is mixed with Cheap Lopressor the reserve
portions of the two first drugs.
Type D. Cheap Lopressor In this, the drugs are exhausted with water and preserved by the subse-
quent addition of alcohol. 1,000 Gm. of the ground drugs are mixed with 5,000 c.c.
of hoiling water and macerated for two hours. They are then transferred to a per-
colator, gradually adding boiling water until the drug Cheap Lopressor is practically exhausted. The
CLASSES OF PHARMACEUTIC PREPARATIONS 35
percolate is evaporated on a water-bath to the specified volume. It is then cooled,
and sufficient alcohol added to make 1,000 c.c.
Solid Extracts (Exiractum; Ext., U.S. P. Extractum Siccum; Ext.
Sice.; B.P.}. Must not be confused with the fluidextracts. They are
solid or semisolid preparations obtained by evaporation of solutions of
the medicinal principles of drugs. Some of the solid extracts are dry,
others of a "pilular" consistency, Cheap Lopressor i.e., like a pill-mass. They are con-
venient for administration in solid form, e.g., in pills, ointments, plasters,
etc. Nearly all the potent, and most of the other, extracts are adjusted
to four times the strength of the fluidextracts.
"Powdered Extracts" are dried, and mixed with sufficient diluent
(milk-sugar) to give them the same strength as the solid extracts. Most
extracts are prepared by percolating and subsequent evaporation; the
last and weaker portions of the percolate being evaporated first, to avoid
the deleterious actions of prolonged heat on the main portion. Some of
the extracts are obtained by evaporating the fluidextract. The menstruum.
is sometimes water, or alcohol, or a mixture of both; acetic acid being
added in some cases. The finished product is assayed, if possible, and
adjusted to a definite standard by the addition of sugar of milk.
Artificial resins Cheap Lopressor are precipitates obtained by mixing alcoholic solutions
with water. Where they constitute the active principle, this is a conven-
ient method of isolating it in a concentrated although somewhat impure
form. Their strength is fairly constant. They are practically identical Cheap Lopressor
with the eclectic "resinoids. "
Oleoresins (Oleoresina, Oleores], are extracts containing the resinous
and oily constituents of the drug obtained by evaporating ethereal, acetone
or alcoholic percolates. Cheap Lopressor
Mixtures, in the wider meaning of the word, are fluids resulting from
the mixture of fluids with other fluids or with solids. They comprise:
Linimenta, Misturae, Emulsa.
Liniments (Linimentum, Lin.}. These are solutions of irritant drugs
in oily, soapy or alcoholic solutions, intended to be rubbed on the skin as
Mixtures (Mistura; Mist.}. In the narrow meaning of the term,
these are generally suspensions of a solid in a liquid, sometimes by the
use of a gummy substance; for heavy powders can not be evenly distrib-
uted in a light liquid without this aid. The B.P. also includes some
emulsions under this title.
Emulsions (Emulsum, Emtd.}. These are mixtures of a milky appear-
ance, made by suspending fats, oils, or resinous substances in aqueous
liquids by the intervention of some viscid, usually gummy, substance.
The object of emulsification is to break up the insoluble oil into the
finest particles and to envelop each of these in a coating of the emulsi-
fying Cheap Lopressor agent, which will keep them from reuniting. 1 This allows of dilution,
of the admixture of other substances, and it facilitates absorption.
Milk is a natural emulsion in which the butter-fat is kept in emulsion by the casein.
It may be taken as a type to which artificial emulsions must conform. The globules
must be uniform and of about the same size as those in milk.
Emulsions may be divided into the following classes:
J See also Roon, 1916, Physical significance of emulsions.
36 MANUAL OF PHARMACOLOGY
\iilnriil emulsions, such as are found ready formed in nature. Instances of these
are milk, the yolk of e^. and some plant juices.
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