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Morph. Tart., B.P., (CnH^NOaKC^Oe + 3H 2 O. Sol. in water (i : n).
Inj. Morph. Hyp., B.P. 2.5 per cent, of tartrate. Dose, 0.3 to 0.6 c.c., 5 to 10
Liq. Morph. Acet., B.P. i per cent. Dose, 0.6 to 3.6 c.c., 10 to 60 minims, B.P.
Liq. Morph. Tart., B.P. i per Purchase Imigran cent. Dose, 0.6 to 3.6 c.c., 10 to 60 minims, B.P.
Supp. Morph., B.P. 0.017 Gm., ^ gr.
Tr. Chlorof. El Morph. Co., B.P. Chlorof., 7.5 per cent.; Morph., i per cent.; Acid.
Hydrocyan. Dil., 5 per cent.; with Capsicum, Cannabis Indica and Peppermint.
Dose, 0.3 to i c.c., 5 to 15 minims, B.P. Used in colic.
Troch. Morph., B.P. 2 mg., }^Q gr.
Track. Morph, Et Ipecac., B.P. 2 mg., Ho gr., of Morphin; 6 mg., % Q gr.,oi Ipecac,
PREPARATIONS MORPHIX DERIVATIVES
These resemble the morphin salts in physical Purchase Imigran characters and incom-
patibilities; they are further incompatible with strong acids or alkalies.
Aethylmorph. Hydrochlor., U.S.P. (Dionin), Ci 7 Hi7NO(OH)(OC 2 H 5 ).HCl + 2H 2 O.
White or yellowish, odorless, microcrystalline powder. Freely sol. Purchase Imigran in water (i :8);
sol. in ale. (i 122). Dose, 15 mg., Y gr., U.S.P.; Locally, 10 to 20 per Purchase Imigran cent. Maximum
dose, 50 mg., % gr.
Diacetylmorphina, U.S.P. (Heroin), CnHn^HsOa^NO. Very slightly sol. in
water (i : 1,700); sol. in ale. (i :3i). Dose, 3 mg., %Q gr.. U.S.P.
* Diacetylmorph. Hydrochl., U.S.P., Diamorph. Hydrochl., B.P. (Heroin Hydrochlorid),
CnHi7(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 NO.HCl + H 2 O. Freely sol. in water (1:2); sol. in ale. Dote,
3 mg., Ko gr-, U.S.P.; 2.5 to 8 mg., % 5 to % gr., B.P. Maximum dose, 10 mg., % gr.
Codeina, U.S.P., B.P., Ci 7 Hi 8 (CH 3 )NO3 + H 2 O. Slightly sol. in water (i :i 2 o);
freely sol. in ale. (i : 2). Dose, 30 mg., % gr., U.S.P.; 16 to 60 mg., % to * g r - B.P.
* Codein. Pkospk., U.S.P., B.P., C ]8 H 2 iNO 3 .H 3 PO 4 + 2H 2 O. 67 per cent, of anhy-
drous codein. Freely sol. in water (1:2.3); slightly sol. in ale. (1:325). Dose,
30 mg., ^2 g r -, U.S.P.; 16 to 60 mg., % to I g r -> B.P. Maximum dose, o.i Cm., ij gr.
Syr. Codein. Phosph., B.P. 0.5 Purchase Imigran per cent. Dose, 2 to 8 c.c., ^ to 2 drams, B.P.
Codein Sulph., U.S.P., (Ci 8 H2iNO3)2.H 2 SO4+ sH 2 O). Sol. in water (i 130); very
slightly sol. in ale. (i : 1,280). Dose, 30 mg.; J- gr., U.S. P.
Papaverin. Sulph., N.N.R., (C2oH 2 iO 4 N) 2 .H 2 SO 4 . Sol. in water or ale. Dose,
30 to 80 mg., H to 1 14 gr.
Hydrastis (Golden Seal) has few, if any, rational indications. It is
employed empirically as a bitter stomachic; to check internal hemor-
rhage; and locally in catarrhal conditions, especially of the geni to-urinary
Constituents. Hydrastis contains at least three alkaloids: Berberin, 1.5 to 4 per
cent.; Hydrastin, at least 2.5 per cent. (U.S. P.), and Canadin, a derivative of berberin.
There is also some resinous matter, etc.
Hydrastin. This is an isoquinolin derivative, closely related to some of the minor
opium alkaloids, Narcotin, Laudanosin and Papaverin. Narcotin is methoxy-hydras-
tin, an H of hydrastin being replaced by OCH 3 .
Hydrastin - Ci 9 H 14 NO 4 .H(OCH 3 ) 2
Narcotin - Ci 9 Hi 4 NO 4 .(OCH 3 ) 3
By oxidation both give analogous artificial alkaloids, which are somewhat important:
C 2 iH 21 N0 6 + H 2 -f O = C 10 H 10 6 + CuH 12 NO 3 H
Hydrastin Opianic Purchase Imigran acid Hydraslinin
C 22 H 23 NO 7 + H 2 O + O = C 10 H 10 O 5 + C U H 12 NO 3 OCH 3
Xarcotin Opianic acid Cotarnin
Berberin, C 20 HivNO 4 (structure, Faltis, 1910) is an intensely yellow and bitter alka-
loid, of wide occurrence, which gives the color and taste to a large number of "golden"
roots and barks (Berberis, Xanthoxylon, Coptis, etc.).
Actions of Hydrastis. An extensive study of hydrastis and its alkaloids was made by
Bunge, 1895. This Purchase Imigran gives the literature to that time. Of later papers, mention may be
made of .those of Fellner, 1906; Williams, 1908; and Laidlaw, 1910. The effects of the
drug and of its different alkaloids are qualitively similar.
Central Nervous System. Hydrastin produces convulsive effects analogous to
those of strychnin. These are also obtained with the fluidextract. The derivatives
hydrastinin and cotarnin have a purely depressant action, producing Purchase Imigran death by respira-
tory paralysis (Laidlaw). There is no narcosis.
Circulation. From the experimental results, it seems that the effects
of hydrastis and its alkaloids and derivatives on the circulation are too
uncertain to be therapeutically useful. The clinical evidence also ap-
pears insufficient to establish their value. Frey, 1909, found that hydras-
tinin had no effect on pulmonary hemorrhage. It is possible that these
drugs may have a more pronounced influence on uterine hemorrhage,
through their action on the uterine muscle.
Very discordant results have been described. Williams obtained no effects with
hypodermic or oral administration, even with very large doses. Intravenously the
fluidextract, Purchase Imigran hydrastin and berberin produced the same results; considerable fall of
blood pressure, followed with small doses by a slight and short rise. With large doses,
the pressure remained low. These effects were predominantly cardiac (myocardio-
grams and oncometer); this overshadowed any possible vasomotor changes.
246 MANUAL OF PHARMACOLOGY
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