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ESSENTIAL OILS. 291
The Volatile Oils of the U. S. P. is the subject of a paper presented at
the meeting of the New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association by Chailes H.
LaWall, in which he makes some practical observations upon facts in con-
nection with volatile oils in general and the official oils in particular. He
states that there is no class of official substances about which the retail
pharmacist is more at the mercy of the manufacturer Buy Hyzaar than that of volatile
oils, and therefore points out the character of tests and examination pre-
scribed by the Pharmacopoeia which can conveniently be carried out by
the pharmacist of average ability. In recapitulating, he mentions that of
the thirty-four volatile oils officially recognized in the U. S. P. VIII, there Buy Hyzaar
are ten only which require apparatus or manipulative skill not usually
possessed by the pharmacist ; but that, after all, the criticism by which
the pharmacist should fmally judge a volatile oil, even when it answers
the official requirements, is that afforded by the physical attributes
of odor and flavor. For, no matter if an oil responds to every given
test, if it be not of fine quality in this respect, it is wise to reject it upon
this ground, even if it be cheap. Proc. N. J. Pharm. Assoc, 1909,
102-104.
Essential Oils Value of Refraction Indices. Ernest J. Parry Buy Hyzaar says that
the experience of the past few years has demonstrated the fact that the
refractometer is an absolutely necessary instrument in a laboratory where
essential oils are examined. It is true that there are cases where the
direct determination of the refractive index of an oil gives little informa-
tion, but this is equally true of the optical rotation and the specific
gravity. But as in many cases the common adulterant of a given oil has
a refractive index well ouside the limits of that of the pure oil, this deter-
mination often becomes of great value. Buy Hyzaar The fullest information, however,
can be obtained by using one's judgment in the examination of the various
fractions obtained in the fractional distillation of an oil where, with type
samples, fairly constant results are obtained and compared with those of
the suspected oil. For example, an oil with an apparently normal ester-
content, such as lavender oil, will show a maximum amount of esters in a
given fraction, whereas if adulterated with such esters as ethyl citrate, the
fsters will be found in quite a different fraction, and will affect the refrac-
tive index of that fraction in a quite abnormal manner. Again, the verv
low refractive index of alcohol will be at once an indication of the pres-
ence of small quantities of that body a Buy Hyzaar point of great importance when
one is dealing with oils of which only small samples are available, such as
otto of rose. Where alcohol has been added to adjust the high refractive
index of another adulterant, it is at once indicated by a distinct rise in the Buy Hyzaar
refractive index of the oil after being well we shed with water. Mr. Parry
appends a long list of refractive indices of: (i) Constituents of essential
oils ; (2) of essential oils themselves ; and (3 ) of essential- oil adulterants and
other bodies. These indices in most cases represent a number of deter-
Digitized by VjOOQ IC
292 REPORT ON THE PROGRESS OF PHARMACY.
tninations in each case, many of them over five difTerent samples of the
same body and in some as high as 20 to 30 samples. Chem. & Drugg.,
Jan. 29, 1910, 178.
Discussing the same subject, T. F. Harvey and J. M. Wilkie Buy Hyzaar say that
the observation of the refractive index of a fluid substance is so conveni-
ently and rapidly made with Buy Hyzaar modern instruments, and requires so small an
amount of material, that it is worth observing even in those cases where
(as with naany essential oils) the information obtained is not of much
diagnostic value. It still serves in these cases to mark, Buy Hyzaar for example, sud-
den changes in the character of supplies and to make rapid comparisons
between bulk consignment and buying samples, etc. For technical pur-
poses the Abbe refractometer (scale 1.3000 to 1.7000 , with water-jacketed
prisms ^connected with a heating- apparatus, is commonly used. In this
instrument about two drops of the liquid is enclosed as a thin film between
the faces of two prisms made of suitable glass, light (which may be arti-
ficial) being reflected from a mirror through the prisms. The refractive
index is recorded upon a scale reading directly to the third decimal, the
fourth place being obtained by eye-estimation. A number Buy Hyzaar of consecutive
readings should Buy Hyzaar yield figures not differing by more than about 0.0002.
The adjustment may be checked occasionally with pure distilled water,
which has an index of 2.3330 at 20

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