Special Internet Prices.
Fast & Guaranteed worldwide Delivery!
Secure & FAST Online ordering.
Our Drugstore Is The Most Trusted Online Drug Supplier.
>> CLICK HERE TO ENTER >>>
Related article: remembered that the relief is generally only symptomatic and may some-
times interfere with the natural processes of repair, or obscure the observa-
tion of the progress of the disease. 1 The danger of habit formation re-
stricts their employment in neurotic individuals and in chronic diseases
(except when these are hopeless). The habit danger can be somewhat
avoided if the morphin is administered only by the physician, with some- Glucophage Xr
what impressive formalities of asepsis, and not intrusted to the patient
1 Cushny, 1914, aptly points out that the avoidance of opiates for Glucophage Xr fear of obscuring the diagnosis
is a confession of deficient diagnostic technic; it should not be necessary to make the .diagnosis at
the expense of exhausting pain.
238 MANUAL OF PHARMACOLOGY
himself. The side actions (constipation, nausea, gastric disturbance, and
occasional excitement) may also interfere with the usefulness. Even with
these restrictions, however, the range of usefulness of the opiates is still
Pain. Morphin surpasses in efficiency all other analgesics, particularly
for persistent pain. It is generally Glucophage Xr aimed to dull, rather than to abolish
the sensibility; and for this purpose relatively small doses suffice. Mor-
phin by hypodermic injection is to be preferred, 5 to 15 mg. (J^ 2 to Y
gr.) according to severity, and repeated as necessary. Local application
is irrational, although it is still somewhat used. (H. C. Wood, Jr., 1916).
Insomnia. Morphin should be avoided, if possible, especially in ner-
vous insomnia and in psychic excitement. It may be needed if the insom-
nia is caused by pain, cough, or dyspnea; and small doses (5 mg. or
^ 2 gr.) may be employed to reduce the dosage, and thus the side actions,
of other hypnotics (/./., the circulatory depression of chloral).
Diarrhea. Opiates are very effective in arresting the excessive peris-
talsis in acute intestinal catarrh. If the intestines are first cleared of
toxic and irritant material by a cathartic, the rest afforded by opiates
favors the subsidence of the inflammation. Tincture of Opium by mouth
(0.5 c.c. or 10 drops) deserves the preference. If the opiates are given
while the materies morbi are still in the intestine, they may do harm, even
when they give symptomatic relief.
Opium is also useful in the constipation and colic of lead poisoning,
by relaxing the intestinal spasm. In peritonitis it Glucophage Xr relieves the pain, both
directly and by lessening peristalsis; but the disguise of the symptoms may
be objectionable surgically. In biliary and renal colic, Morphin (15 mg.
or % gr.) Glucophage Xr is given hypodermically, to lessen the suffering (usually with
i 'mg. atropin, which relaxes the ducts).
Cough. The opiates check cough by lowering the reflex irritability
of the respiratory center. Small doses suffice for this purpose by mouth,
Morphin 5 mg. or ^ 2 gr. ; Tr.Opii ^ c.c. or 10 drops; Codein 30 mg. or
]/2 g Glucophage Xr r -5 Heroin 5 Glucophage Xr mg. or 3-^2 g r - (children above Glucophage Xr one year, % mg. or f 20
gr. ; below one year, % mg. or ^40 gr.);Dionin 15 mg. or ^ gr. Codein
deserves preference, since it produces the desired effect with less side ac-
tions, and without habit formation.
The use of opiates for this purpose, as in bronchitis and phthisis, re-
quires judgment. They are indicated when the cough is mainly irrita-
tive ; and contraindicated when it is required for the expulsion of excessive
mucus. Even then, however, they may be needed to produce sleep.
Asthma and' Dyspnea. Morphin Glucophage Xr (15 mg. or }/ gr., hypodermically)
often relieves this condition, by quieting the patient, allaying the "air
hunger" and perhaps by lessening reflex irritability. It should be
avoided if possible. In nervous asthma, it tends to form a habit. In
respiratory dyspnea, the reduction of respiration may be dangerous. In
cardiac asthma, the increase of carbon dioxid in the blood may injure
the cardiac function and establish a vicious circle. The use of caffein
or atropin would be preferable; but it may be justifiable to resort to
morphin, especially for relieving the anxiety.
Colds. The diaphoretic action is utilized for aborting colds; generally
as Pulv. Glucophage Xr Ipecac et Opii, 0.5 gm. or 7^ gr.
Anesthesia. Morphin in safe doses does not induce complete insensi-
bility, but it is an efficient synergistic to other ansthetics (10 mg. or %
gr., hypodermically, see under "Ether," also under " Glucophage Xr Scopolamin.")
THE MORPHIN GROUP 239
Morphin is similarly useful for distracting the patient's attention from
operations under local anesthesia.
Hemorrhage. Morphin favors the arrest of hemorrhage by quieting
the patient, thus keeping the blood pressure low, and permitting the for-
mation of the clot. It is especially valuable when the hemorrhage is in
inaccessible situation, f.i., the pulmonary hemorrhage of phthisis. The
depressant effect on the respiration enjoins caution in the use of larger doses,
especially in severe hemorrhage, cardiac disease, and other debilitating
Convulsions. Since morphin increases reflex excitability, it can not
compare with ether, chloral or chloroform for suppressing tetanus or other
spinal convulsions; but its analgesic effect may justify its use as an ad-
juvant. The depressant action on the respiratory center must be borne
in mind (Dreyfus, 1914).
Psychic and motor exaltations, e.g., delirium tremens or atropin poisoning, are con-
trolled only by very large doses, the danger of which offsets the problematic benefit.
Diabetes. Large doses of opium, morphin or codein appear to benefit
some otherwise intractable cases; but the ultimate results are not brilliant.
The effects are probably indirect, by slowing the absorption of sugar from
the alimentary tract.
Experimental Glycosurias. The opium alkaloids have no effect on the hypergly-
cemia resulting from the conversion of hepatic glycogen (epinephrin or piqure) ; but they
have an inhibitory action on alimentary hyperglycemia (Klercker, 1914). This indi-
cates that the action is on the alimentary canal, presumably by the gastric delay slow-
ing the digestion and absorption of the carbohydrates, and thus preventing the sud.den
flooding of the organism with sugar (Macleod, 1914). Morphin delays the disappear-
ance of injected dextrose from the circulation of dogs, although it facilitates its excre-
tion by the urine (Kleiner and Meltzer, 1916). It must therefore hinder the passage
of sugar from the blood into the tissues.
Clinical Evidence. Good clinical observers claim that the thirst, polyuria, glyco-
suria, and itching of the skin are all markedly diminished. Part of this action must be
attributed to the analgesic effect, while the influence on the glycosuria is probably due
to its action on digestion, and is produced in the same way as by a limitation of the diet
or by nauseants. As a matter of fact, opiophagic diabetics die faster than others.
Codein has been used instead, but without any marked advantages.
Related post: Hoodia 57, Cheap Flagyl, Order Tadalafil, Order Kamagra Us, Neurontin Xr, Buy Propecia 5mg Australia, Otc Prevacid, Buy Arava, Effexor Buy, Cheap Fluconazole