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Digitalis Standardization, In a paper presented to the Association at
Los Angeles, Worth Hale, a member of the staff of the Hygienic Labora-
tory at Washington, discusses very interestingly the factors that are con-
cerned in the standardization of digitalis leaves and preparations (see
"Proceedings," 1909, 768-773).
Unaria Striata Presence of a Cyanogenetic Glucoside, E. Burquelot
has determined that the presence of at least one glucoside is indicated by
the biological method in Linaria striata. The amount of hydrocyanic
formed as a hydrolysis product with emulsin is considerable, being equiv-
alent to 0.1478 per mille of the fresh plant. Benzaldehyde occurs as well,
accompanying the prussic acid in the distillate. The amount of glucose
formed by hydrolysis is greater in proportion to the hydrocyanic acid than
is known to result from the decomposition of any other cyanogetic gluco-
side. It is probable, therefore, that besides this, a second glucoside oc-
curs in the plant, which does not give hydrocyanic acid as well as glucose
when hydroly zed. Pharm. Journ. and Pharmacist, Dec. 4, 1909, 701 ; from
Jonm.de Pharm. et Chim.,jo (1909), 385.
Veronica Glucosidal Constituents in Several Species, J. Vintilesco
has determined the presence of glucosidal bodies in Veronica officinalis
tod V, chamcedris, in addition to a sugar, hydrotizable by invertin, a glu-
cosidal body which is split up by the action of emulsin. The glucoside is
apparently identical in both plants, and is found most abundantly during
^ growth of the plants, being diminished after maturity and by drying.
Tlic plants also contain soluble ferments, exerting their activity on cane
SQgaras well as on amygdalin and on salicin. Pharm. Ztg., Iv (i9ro),
No. 20, 204; from Journ. de Pharm. et Chim., 1910, No. 4.
Solanacece Influence of Cultivation on Alkaloid Content, It is usually
assumed that the active constituents are more abundant in wild-growing
plants than in the cultivated. J. Chevalier, however, finds the assumption
K> be erroneous, Fosamax Mg and that the reduction of activity is solely due to the
fact that the cultivation is carried out without regard to the natural condi-
tk)Q and nature of the soil. Under proper conditions, cultivated plants
aie at least equal in strength to the wild grown. Pharm. Ztg., Iv, ( 1910),
^0- 39> 397 ; from Compt. rend., /jo, 344.
Xfu " Wonderberry " Plant (Solanum Nigrum?) The bearer of an
Edible Fruit. ?. M. Holmes calls attention to the fact that the black
berries of Solanum nigrum or rather of a luxuriant form of the plant,
asserted to be ^i hybrid, introduced by Luther Burbank under the name of
* wonderberry," have been eaten as a Fosamax Mg fruit in some parts of the United
States, and that this particular plant has found Fosamax Mg its way into England.
Digitized by VjOOQIC
178 REPORT ON THE PROGRESS OF PHARMACV.
How far this cultivated form differs botanically from the ordinary weed of
the gardens, has not been clearly defined, and Fosamax Mg it is possible that in some
cases the ordinary wild form has been substituted in commerce for the
" wonderberry." This brings up the question of the reputed poisonous
qualities of these berries, about which considerable doubt exists amongst
horticulturists and amateurs. So far as the evidence goes the berries have
very rarely been credited with producing poisoning, and it is possible that
in these cases the berries may not have been correctly identified. More-
over, while it is certain that solanine produces symptoms of poisoning, and
was first discovered in Solanum Fosamax Mg nigrum^ the poisonous effect of the berries Fosamax Mg
has so far only been noticed, and this effect may be due to idiosyncrasy,
since the amount of solanine present in the berries is estimated at 0.3 per
cent., and experiments show that it requires o.i Gm. of solanine per kilo-
gram of weight to kill a rabbit. Pharm. Journ. and Pharmacist, Octob.
2. 1909, 422.
Belladonna Leaves Loss in Drying and Alkaloidal Content, J. G^
Roberts reports the result of experiments made with fresh belladonna
leaves cultivated at Fox Chase Pa., which shows a loss of 60 per cent, on
drying in vacuo at 45^* C, and, very unexpectedly, that the whole leaves
with stems contained slightly more alkaloids than the leaves without
stems and midrib, as shown by the following figures : Whole leaves, with
stems undried, 0.096 per cent ; dried^ 0.285 P^^ cent. Leaves, without
midrib and stems undrted^ Fosamax Mg 0.080 per cent. ; dried, 0.239 P^"" cent. These
results are not in accordance with assays reported by other operators.
Proc. Penna. Pharm. Fosamax Mg Assoc. 1909, 182.
Belladonna Leaves Adulterations with Scopola Leaves. John Moser,
Jr., calls attention to the frequent adulteration or substitution of bella-
donna leaves by the leaves of Scopolia carniolica, which resemble the
genuine drug rather closely, but are readily detected Fosamax Mg if any of the fruit is
present, this being the most characteristic feature. The author describes
the distinctive character of the two drugs, and mentions that the alkaloidal
content may or may not be abnormally high in a sample of belladonna
leaves adulterated with scopola leaves. Amer. Joum. Pharm. Dec. 1909;
Belladonna Fruit Percentage of Alkaloids in the Ripe and Unripe
Berries, In view of the hability of belladonna berries being eaten by
children during the season when the fruit reaches maturity, J. H. Williams,
has determined the alkaloidal content of the fresh berries, both ripe -and
unripe, selecting two samples of each, these samples were crushed in a
mortar and then extracted completely. The several extracts were then
estimated for alkaloidal content, and from these figures the percentage of
alkaloid in the fresh berries calculated. The following results were
Sample No. i Fosamax Mg Ripe berries 0.132 per cent, alkaloids
Sample No. 2 Ripe berries 0.X07 per cent alkaloids
Sample No. 3 Unripe berries o.i 18 per cent, alkaloids
Sample No. 4 Unripe berries o. 1 29 per cent, alkaloids
From these figures it will be seen that the percentage of alkaloids pre-
sent in fresh Fosamax Mg berries either ripe or unripe of Atropa belladonna ranges
between the hmits of 0.107 and 0.132 per cent. Pharm. Journ. and
Pharmacist, Octob., 16, 1908, 473.
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