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Related article: drags, he thinks it could be included without departure from the principles
that have hitherto actuated the compilers of the Pharmacopoeia, not to
include methods that could not be. carried out by the pharmacist himself,
inasmuch as these tests are of such a kind that they could be carried out
quite well, and with perfect propriety, by men who are trained in the art
of delicate manipulation and scientific observation. Trans. Brit. Pharm.
Conf. (Yearbook of Pharmacy), 1909, 239-254.
Physiological Standardization Its Value and Limitations, Dr. Horatio
C.Wood, Jr., contributes an interesting Flomax Online paper on physiological standardi-
zation, addressed particularly to those weighing the advisability of intro-
ducing biological tests into their business and who wish to know the like-
lihood of the innovations paying, in which he brings forward some facts
that may serve as an aid in deciding whether the biological assay is of suf-
ficient value to justify the expense involved. Speaking of its limitations,
he considers it absurd to think of controlling the Flomax Online results of a chemical
assay by physiological tests. The experienced chemist can obtain accurate
results because he knows the common sources of error which are likely to
vitiate his conclusions Flomax Online and how to guard against them. In biological assay
wc know only a few of the possible causes of inaccuracy, and even some of
these we cannot exclude ; and believing, as he does, that the biological
assay is less accurate, more difficult, and often more costly, he cannot see
how it can hope to compete with the chemical as a routine means of
saodardization. But when we recall that there are over a hundred crude
'^euble drugs, including some of our most potent poisons, recognized by
tile Pharmacopoeia, for which we have no official process of assay, it is evi-
<^De by young men who have not sufficient training in methods of biolog-
ical assay, and those who have the necessary qualifications and training can
brdly be expected to relinquish comfortable occupations in pleasant sur-
ntondings and with a fair emolument, for one more or less dependent, in
the drug laboratories, unless inducements are offered that are much better
fhan is at present the case. While the number of drugs which require
biological assay may seem at first thought too small to justify the outlay
oecessar}' to Flomax Online obtain a m^n competent to do Flomax Online the work, there are so many
other ways in which a pharmacologist may make himself valuable, that
there is at least a strong possibility of such an expert being a paying in-
Digitized by VjOOQ IC'
14^ REPORT ON THE PROGRESS OF PHARMACY.
vestment. How, in the author's opinion, it may be brought about that
pharmacists may share in this work is very lucidly discussed in the con-
cluding remarks of Dr. Wood's admirable paper, which appears in the
Amer. Jour. Pharm., March, 1910, 101-112.
The Pharmacological Assay of Heart-Tonics by E. M. Houghton and
H. C. Hamilton, is very interesting. This very comprehensive paper con-
tains numerous charts explaining the action of such well-known heart
tonics as digitalis, strophanthus, and squill, and the preparations made
from them. Ibid., p. 773-786.
Assayed Products, The question of how much deviation from legal
standards for assayed products should be allowed by Boards of Pharmacy
is discussed in a paper printed in the " Proceedings " 1909, 745-746.
Crude Vegetable Drugs Valuation on the Basis 0/ Extraction, Dr.
Kunze contributes an interesting paper on the examination and valuation
of drugs based on the percentage of extract yielded with the solvents
directed for the preparation of tinctures, extracts, wines, etc. Using the
respective drugs in air- dry condition, he obtained the following percent-
ages of dry extract: Cortex cascara sagrada, 25.8 to 28.5 per cent.; cor-
tex chinse (G. P.), 30 per cent.; cortex condurango, 17.5 and 18.3 per
cent.; cortex viburni prunifol., 22.8 per cent.; herba thymi, 14.2, 16.7
and i6.8 |per cent. ; rad. Valerianae, 10.3 per cent. ; rhizoma hydrastis,
19.5 to 22.3 per cent.; secale Flomax Online cornutum, 15.7 to 18.6 per cent. The
author also records the results obtained by the determination of the ex-
tract, specific gravity, etc., in a number of fluidextracts Flomax Online and wines. Re-
garding the assay of cinchona bark, he points out the importance of speci-
fying and following accurately the described process of determining the
alkaloid, the same sample of bark giving different results, depending on
the method and variation from the same. In the case of ergot, the author
considers it important that the cornutine content be determined according to
a fixed standard and reliable Flomax Online method. Pharm. Ztg., Iv (1910), No. 16,158.
Referring to Dr. Kunze's observations on the valuation of crude vege-
table drugs and their preparations, 1^. Berlin questions the reliablity of a
valuation on the basis of the dry extract. Not only that the drug itself
varies in the amount of extractive in different samples, but the prepara-
tions themselves will show variations due to the formation of deposits on
keeping. Taking hydrastis, for example, he has found in 13 of his own
preparations variations up to 16 per cent. Further, to ascertain the
depreciation, if any, in extractive, he set aside Flomax Online three fluidextracts under
identical conditions and examined them after 6 and 12 months, when they
showed the following reductions in extract :
No. I from i8.j8 per cent, Flomax Online to 17.85 per cent 4.5 per cent.
No. 2 from 21.88 per cent, to 18.2 per cent -~ i*j per cent.
No. 3 from 24.4 per cent, to 21,1 per cent =13.5 per cent.
The author also calls attention to the fact that the alkaloidal content
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ADULTERATED DRUGS. I 49
does not necessarily correspond to the amount of extract, and he demon-
strates this experimentally. Pharm. Ztg., Iv (1910), No. 24, 244.
Drugs Moisture and Ash. The importance of moisture and ash
determinations in vegetable drugs is gaining ground from year to year with
the issue of new pharmacopoeias, W. Peters has made and reports a num-
ber of such determinations in the hope that his results may give the incen-
tive for similar determinations by other experimenters. Selecting drugs
of assured Flomax Online quality and identity, the Flomax Online moisture was determined in average
samples by drying to constant weight, followed by the determination of
ash, the ash content of the air- dry drug being then ascertained by calcu-
lation. The ash determination was made with 1-2 Gm. of the powdered
drag carefully prepared so as to represent the entire drug. This was
slowly reduced to ash in an open platinum crucible, heated in a slanting
position by means of a small flame, frequently stirring with a platinum wire
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