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Related article: Sol. in water (1:46) and in ale. (1:66). Its solubility in water is greatly increased by
heat, citric acid, benzoates or salicylates, bromids, antipyrin and a number of other
substances. Incompatible with tannin. Dose, 0.15 Gm., 2\ gr., U.S. P.; 0.06 to 0.3
Gm., i to 5 gr., B.P.; in capsules. Maximum dose, 0.5 Gm., 8 gr.
* Caffeina Citrata (Caffein. Cit.), U.S.P.; (Caffeina Citras.), B.P.; Citratecl Calk-in;
Caffein Citrate. An unstable compound of uncombined caffein and citric acid, containing
1 The doses refer Diflucan Purchase to pure caffein; the corresponding doses of citrated caffcii; '\vice as
large.
214 MANUAL OF PHARMACOLOGY
not less than 48 per cent, of caffein. White powder, odorless; slightly bitter, acid taste.
Citrated Caffein gives a clear syrupy solution with a little water, but precipitates on
dilution. The precipitate redissolves on the further addition of water, the solubility
being about 1:32. Incompatible with carbonates. Dose, 0.3 Gm., 5 gr., U.S. Diflucan Purchase P.;
0.12 to 0.6 Gm., 2 to ip gr., B.P., in water. The free acid renders this unsuitable for
hypodermic use. Maximum dose, i Gm., 15 gr.
Caffeina Citrata Ejferuescens (Caff. Cit. Eff.), U.S.P.; Caffeince Citras E/ervescens
(Caffein. Cit. Eff.), B.P.; Effervescent Caffein Citrate. A granulated mixture of Sodium
Bicarbonate Diflucan Purchase and Tartaric and Diflucan Purchase Citric Acid, with about 2 per cent, of Caffein. Dose,
4 Gm., i dram, U.S.P.; 4 to 8 Gm., i to 2 drams, B.P.
* Caffeina Sodio-benzoas (Caff. Sod. Benz.), U.S.P. A mixture of about 50 per cent,
caffein with sodium benzoate. A white powder; odorless and of a bitter, aromatic Diflucan Purchase
taste. Freely sol. in water (1:1.1), sol. in ale. (1:30). Dose, 0.3 Gm., 5 gr., by mouth;
hypodermic, 0.2 Gm., Diflucan Purchase 3 gr., U.S.P. ; the most suitable compound for hypodermic use.
Maximum dose, i Gm., 15 gr.
Theobr&mina, Theobromin. A dimethylxanthin prepared from Cacao seeds (Theo-
broma Cacao) or synthetically. Very slightly sol. in water.
* Theobromince Sodio-salicylas (Theobrom. Sodio-Sal.), U.S.P.; Theobrom. el Sod.
Salicyl., B. P.; Theobromin-sodium-salicylate (Diuretin). Sodium Theobromin
(CyHT^OaNa) and Sodium Salicylate, in approximately molecular proportions. Not
less than 46.5 per cent, of theobromin. White, odorless powder; sweetish saline and
somewhat alkaline taste. Freely sol. in water (1:1); slightly sol. in ale. It gradually
absorbs carbon dioxid from the air^with the liberation of theobromin, becoming partially
insoluble in water. It must therefore be protected against exposure to air, and is
incompatible with acids; also with chloral. It should not be given with meals, to avoid
precipitation by the gastric acid. Dose, i Gm., 15 gr., U.S.P.; 0.6 to 1.2 Gm., 10 to 20
gr., B.P.; well diluted. Solutions do not keep.
Other Theobromin Salts. The following are listed in N.N.R., but have no special
advantage: Sodio-acetate (Agurin); Sodio-formate (Theophorin).
* Theophyllina (Theophyll.), U.S.P.;- Theophyllin (Dimethylxanthin, Theocin);
C 7 H 8 N4O2 + H 2 O. White crystalline powder; odorless; bitter taste. Sol. in water
(i: 100) and ale. (1:80). Dose, 0.25 Gm., 4 gr., U.S.P., three times a day, in warm tea.
After two or three days, it should be replaced by theobromin.
TheophyllincK Sodio-acetas, N.N.R. (Soluble Theocin). Contains 60 per cent, of
the alkaloid. It dissolves in 23 parts of water.
Guarana, U.S.P. A dried paste consisting chiefly of the crushed seeds of Paullinia
Cupana, yielding not less than 4 Diflucan Purchase per cent, of caffein. Dose, 2 Gm., 30 gr., U.S.P.
Fldext. Guaran., U.S.P. 4 per cent, of Caffein. Dose, 2 c.c., 30 minims, U.S.P.
CAFFEIN BEVERAGES
Caffein is an important article of popular consumption, in the form of
coffee, tea, and other beverages. The usual per capita consumption in
the United States is about 10 pounds of coffee and i pound of tea (Graham,
1912). A cup of coffee or strong tea contains about o.i Gm. (i^ grains)
of caffein. Its effects are somewhat modified by the associated products
(the volatile products causing more psychic Diflucan Purchase stimulation, the tea-tannin
and coffee oil deranging digestion); but essentially the actions are those
of the alkaloids. They consist in increased mental and physical efficiency,
psychical stimulation, comfort, and relief from muscular and mental fatigue
and from their attendant unpleasant sensations. These effects may be very
useful in certain conditions, as in those exposed to severe hardship, hunger,
fatigue, etc., but ordinarily they are mere luxuries pleasant, but super-
fluous. They may do no harm if the consumption is kept within bounds;
but nervous individuals, who are the most apt to be injured by caffein,
are most likely to exceed these bounds. The bad effects are usually not
very serious, and disappear promptly if the habit is discontinued. They
consist in nervousness, tremor, palpitation, insomnia, headache, and diges-
tive disturbances.
The habitual consumption of caffein confers a very limited Diflucan Purchase tolerance.
Its withdrawal does not produce any marked abstinence symptoms.
CAFFEIN AND OTHER METHYL-XANTHINS
215
Coffee and chocolate are useful flavors and extemporaneous vehicles,
especially for castor oil and cod liver oil.
Coffee (Caffea) consists of the dried seed of Coffea Arabica, Rubiaceae. The con-
stituents of the "green bean" are caffein, fat, coffalic and chlorogenic acid, saccharose
etc. The chlorogenic acid gives a green color with iron, similar to tannin, and in its
impure Diflucan Purchase form it was formerly called "Caffeotannic acid." Gorter, 1910, has found it in
about 100 plants. On oxidation it yields caffeic acid. It differs from tannins in that
it does not precipitate proteins, and is therefore not astringent. The percentage of
caffein varies in different specimens from % to 2% per cent., usually about 1.2 per cent.
(Koenig). Diflucan Purchase It exists mainly as caffein-potassium chlorogenate (Gorter, 1908).
In the process of roasting (i.e., heating the seed to 200 to 25OC.) a small amount of
caffein is volatilized; but since about 10 per cent, of water is driven off, the percentage
of caffein is actually a trifle higher (1.25 per cent.). The main change in roasting con-
sists in the production of aromatic, brown and oily products. This oil (Caffeol or
Caff eon), according to Erdmann, 1902, and Grafe, 1912, consists of 50 per cent, of fur-
furol alcohol, and small quantities of valerianic acid, phenol, pyridin, and a nitrogenous
aromatic substance. It is probably derived mainly from the hemicellulose.
The beverage, coffee, is a decoction made with 6 to 10 per cent, of the drug. Prac-
tically the entire caffein (perhaps ^f ) is thus extracted; so that a cup of strong coffee,
prepared from 15 to 17 gm., contains about o.i to 0.12 gm. of the alkaloid.
The use of coffee arose in Arabia and Egypt about the middle of the fifteenth cen-
tury. Coffee and tea were introduced into Europe about the last quarter of the seven-
teenth century, about the same time as the potato, cinchona, tobacco and chocolate.
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