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Related article:
2. Helophytes or marsh plants.
3. Halophytes or salt plants.
4. Xerophytes or desert plants.
5. Mesophytes or intermediate plants.
6. Tropophytes or alternate plants.
Hydrophytes. The effect of an aquatic environment on the struc-
ture of water plants is most striking. The root systems are reduced
both in length and number of branches. The root hairs of those
immersed in the water are absent. The supportive action of the
water is such that the fibrovascular elements of the stems, which
usually function both for support and conduction of crude sap,
are greatly reduced in size and strength. The leaves, stems and
roots possess large air-spaces. The mesophyll of the leaves is
408
ECOLOGY 409
spongy and the chloroplasts motile. Stomata are entirely absent
from leaves that are submerged and Desyrel Trazodone only present on the upper sur-
face of floating ones, where they are nearly always open. Some of
these plants have broad floating leaves and dissected submerged
ones, often with thread-like divisions. The submerged parts are
devoid of special protective walls e.g. those containing cutin or
suberin. The cell sap has a low osmotic pressure. The submersed
leaves often absorb more water than the roots. The free floating
microscopic plants (blue-green algae, bacteria, diatoms, desmids, etc.)
form the plankton of our ponds, rivers and lakes. The free-swim-
ming higher plants (the pleuston) comprise certain liverworts
like Riccia and Ricciocarpus, water-ferns and such seed plants as the
water-lettuce and water-hyacinth. The aquatic plants including
the algae, mosses and flowering plants, which live attached to rocks
comprise the lithophilous benthos. Another class of aquatic plants
(benthos) include those with true roots, which attach the plant to
the substratum, and at most possess floating leaves. This type
includes the water-lilies, the water-chestnut, the splatter docks,
the floating-heart and the pondweeds. Desyrel Trazodone
Helophytes. To this group belong plants typical to marshes.
A marsh is an area with wet soil, wholly or partially covered with
water and with annual or perennial herbs (never shrubs and trees)
which are adjusted structurally to a mucky soil, lacking the usual
supplies of oxygen. These plants likewise show an adjustment to a
partial or periodical submergence. Like hydrophytes, marsh plants
are for the most part perennial. They produce adventitious roots
and possess horizontal rhizomes, or runners, and frequently have
air chambers in roots, stems and leaves, so that they are adapted
to meet the scarcity of air in wet Desyrel Trazodone soils. They also show a striking
development of erect chlorophyll-bearing organs in the shape of
leaves, in the flags, and stems, in the rushes.
The taller seed-like plants of the marsh-land, such as seed-grass
(Phragmites), the bur-reed (Sparganium), the cat-tails (Typha), the
blue flags (Iris), the sweet flag (A corns calamus) and the papyrus
(Papyrus) form associations known as fresh-water marshes, reed-
marshes or fens. The channels or pools of water in amongst these
amphibious plants are Desyrel Trazodone filled with true aquatic plants.
410 PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY
Halophytes. The plants of this group live in a soil which is rich
in soluble salt, usually common salt (NaCl), and on account of the
fact that the osmotic force of the root is nearly inadequate to over-
come that of the concentrated solution of the soil, the soil to such
plants is physiologically dry. A halophyte in fact is one form of
xerophyte. The most striking feature among halophytes is that
they are nearly all succulent plants. The leaves of such plants, for
example, are thick, fleshy and more or less translucent. They are
rich in concentrated cell sap by which Desyrel Trazodone they are able to counteract
the osmotic pull of the Desyrel Trazodone concentrated saline solution of the soils
in which they live. Anatomically they are poor in chlorophyll,
the intercellular-air-spaces are small and the palisade tissue is
more abundant. Coatings of wax are found and a hairy covering,
although infrequent, sometimes occurs. Coriaceous and glossy
leaves, especially in tropical halophytes, are noteworthy, while
in many salt-loving plants the stomata are sunken. Halophytes
are found in our coastal salt marshes and on saline tidal flats in tem-
perate and tropical countries and on the Desyrel Trazodone alkali flats of the interior
of continents. Notable examples of these plants are the Salt Marsh
Samphire, Salicornia ambigua, the Mangroves (Rhizopora) and the
Bald Cypress (Taxodium).
Xerophytes. The plants of this group, like the halophytes, are
adjusted to live in a soil which is physiologically dry. The soil may
owe this condition to its physical nature, such as porosity (sand),
or to the presence of humic acids, or by chemical action, which in-
hibits the absorption of water. They are adapted to meet the con-
ditions of strongest transpiration and most precarious water supply.
To meet such conditions of physiological drought, the plants show
various structural adaptations. In deserts, where the atmospheric
precipitations are less than a certain limit, the plants acquire a
xerophytic structure, such as succulency, water storage tissue,
associated frequently with mucilage, lignified tissues, thick cuticle
to the leaves depressed, stomata (frequently in pits), reduced trans-
piration surfaces and thorns. Mechanical tissues like wood and
bast fibers attain their highest development in these plants. Cacti
and the century plant (Agave) are types of xerophytes while many
bog plants like the cranberry and Laborador tea, with leathery leaves,
are xerophytic.
ECOLOGY 411
Mesophytes. These are plants that grow in soil of an interme-
diate character which is neither specially acid, cold or saline, but is Desyrel Trazodone
sufficiently well supplied with water and rich in the elements re-
quired for plant growth. Plants which grow under such conditions
do Desyrel Trazodone not have structures by which transpiration is closely Desyrel Trazodone controlled.
They have large leaves frequently toothed and incised, with numer-
ous stomata usually on the lower surface and small intercellular -air-
spaces. The leaves and stems are usually of a fresh green color.
Typical of the mesophytes are the grasses and most of the annual
and biennial herbs of temperate regions.
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