Clindamycin Cleocin

Clindamycin Cleocin

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Clindamycin Cleocin

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28
MANUAL OF PHARMACOLOGY
FIG. i. Method of percola-
tion (Thornton).
portions of the Clindamycin Cleocin powder will be entirely exhausted whilst others are still scarcely affected.
The lirinnos of the packing is also of great importance; if Clindamycin Cleocin not firm enough, the men-
struum will run through too rapidly and the percolate will consequently be weak. If
too lirm it can not run at all; and if any swelling occurs the percolator will be broken.
Drugs in co;ir>e powder should be packed more firmly than fine powders. An alcoholic
menstruum requires firmer packing than a watery one.
The {Kicking being completed, the menstruum is poured on until it stands an inch
or two above the drug; the percolator is then covered and set aside for maceration
for a specified time, the tube being raised so that no liquid flows out. When the time
of maceration is completed, the tube is lowered and fixed
at such a level that the outflow occurs at the rate of 2 to
15 drops per minute. New menstruum is poured on in
the measure that the old flows out. Care should be taken
always to maintain the layer of liquid above the powder;
else cracks may appear in the latter, necessitating re-
packing.
The process is continued, in the case of tinctures, until
a certain volume of percolate is obtained. The quality of
the percolate will, of course, depend upon the care and skill
of the operator, and the product is apt to vary. Macera-
tion would, therefore, be a better process for tinctures.
This difficulty is avoided in the case of extracts, for
here the percolation is continued "until the drug is ex-
hausted;" i.e., until the active ingredients have become
completely dissolved out. This is recognized by testing
the last portions of Clindamycin Cleocin the percolate in the appropriate man-
ner, such as Mayer's reagent for alkaloids, water for resins,
etc. It may here be remarked that a drug is usually
more rapidly exhausted of its active ingredients than of its coloring-matter, so that the
last portions of percolate may be colored and yet devoid of activity.
The choice of a menstruum must be determined by the Clindamycin Cleocin nature of the constituents. The
object is, to extract all the active ingredients and the minimum of inactive. Alkaloids
and resins require strong alcohol; gums, weak alcohol; licorice, alkaline alcohol; san-
guinaria and ergot, acidified alcohol; gentian and quassia, water plus alcohol enough to
keep.
Pharmaceutic Solvents. The most useful are the following:
Water or Glycerin. Dissolve salts (including those of alkaloids),
sugar, gums, tannin, acids, and alkalies, etc.
Dilute Acetic Acid. Especially for alkaloids.
Alcohol. Dissolves alkaloidal salts, neutral principles, resins, volatile
oils. Precipitates gums and most inorganic salts.
Ether, Chloroform, Acetone. Dissolve free alkaloids, neutral principles,
resins, volatile and fixed oils, and fats.
Petroleum Benzin. Solvent properties as the preceding, except resins.
- 1 romatic Spirits of A mmonia. Dissolves resins and organic acids.
In the case of very volatile menstrua, such as ether, chloroform, or petroleum ether,
some means must be employed to collect and return the evaporated solvent. One of the
best apparatus of this kind is the familiar Soxhlet extractor.
Expression. The process of separating a liquid from a Clindamycin Cleocin solid by
pressure.
Its principal employment in pharmacy is for the recovery of tinctures from the
"marc," i.e., the liquid retained by the drug residue after maceration and percolation.
It is also a process of separating fixed oils.
The drug is put in a coarse strong cloth and subjected to pressure in a press. These
are of various patterns; screw, lever, hydraulic, or centrifugal. The pressure must
be applied gradually to prevent the bursting of the cloth. Small quantities can often
be pressed sufficiently by putting them into a cloth and tightly twisting the end.
Straining or Clindamycin Cleocin Colation. The process of separating solid coarse particles
from a liquid by pouring it through a cloth or strainer.
PHARMACEUTIC METHODS 2Q
Filtration. The process of separating solid particles (fine or coarse)
from a liquid by pouring it through a finely porous material, such as
filter-paper.
The usual material for nitration is pure unsized paper, "filter-paper," which is made
of various grades white and gray and of varying texture and thickness according to
the purpose for which it is to be used.
There are two principal methods of folding a filter plain and plaited. These two
filters have different uses. The plaited filter offers a much larger surface Clindamycin Cleocin for filtration
and is therefore more rapid; it is the form usually employed in pharmacy. The plain
filter, on the other hand, facilitates washing and removal of the precipitate, and is of
more frequent use in chemistry.
Other materials are sometimes employed instead of paper. A very useful filter for
large quantities of liquid is made Clindamycin Cleocin from felt. A plug of glass-wool or asbestos placed in
the tube of the funnel is especially useful for strong acids or alkalies. A cell of porous
clay is also employed, as in the various forms of the Chamberland filter. With this
a vacuum is indispensable.
Dialysis. This is sometimes used to separate crystalloids (alkaloids,
salts, etc.) from colloids (extractives).
Decolorization. It is often desirable to remove the coloring-matter from a solution.
This may sometimes be accomplished by Clindamycin Cleocin choosing appropriate solvents. More often,
however, the solution is filtered through recently calcined animal charcoal. This very
often retains some of the active constituents as well as the coloring-matter.
Clarification. The process of rendering turbid mixtures clear and transparent, by
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