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Related article: PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY
the dyes orcein and litmus. Litmus is one of the best indicators in Buy Cephalexin Online
volumetric analysis. Cudbear, a purplish-red powder, used exten-
sively for coloring pharmaceutical preparations in the form of tinc-
ture, is prepared by treating species of Rocella, Lecanora or other
lichens with ammonia water. Other lichens, such, as Cetraria
islandica, various species of Parmelia, Usnea and Alectoria, have
been used in medicine because of demulcent principles which they
DIVISION II. BRYOPHYTA
Plants showing a beginning of definite alternation of genera-
tions, i.e., gametophyte (sexual phase) alternating with sporophyte
FIG. 151. PIG. 152.
FIG. 151- Section of thallus of Cetraria islandica through an apothecium. as,
Asci, three of which contain ascospores. gon, Gonidia. The inner (central por-
tion shows the mycelial threads of a fungus entangling Buy Cephalexin Online the alga. (Sayre.)
FIG. 152. Buy Cephalexin Online A liverwort (Lunularia). Below, portions of the thallus, showing
the lunar-shaped cupules, with brood-buds, or gemmae. Above a single gemma,
greatly magnified. (Gager.)
(asexual phase of development) in their life history, the two phases
being combined in one plant. The female sexual cell is always
lodged in an archegonium (a multicellular female sexual organ).
SUBDIVISION I HEPATIC^ OR LIVERWORTS
Plants of aquatic or terrestial habit whose bodies consist of a
rather flat, furchate branching thallus or leafy branch which is
dorsoventral (having distinct upper and lower surface) ; the upper
surface consists of several layers of cells containing chlorophyll,
which gives the green color to the plants; the lower surface gives
origin to hair-like outgrowths of the epidermal cells serving as absorp-
tive parts and called rhizoids. Upon the dorsal surface of this thal-
loid body (the gametophyte) cup-like Buy Cephalexin Online structures are produced called
cupules which contain special reproductive bodies called gemma,
these being able to develop into new gametophytes. The sex organs
are of two kinds, male and female. The male organs are termed
antheridia, the female, archegonia. The antheridia are more or less
club-shaped, somewhat stalked organs consisting of an outer layer of
sterile cells investing a mass of sperm mother-cells from which are
formed the spirally curved biciliate antherozoids, or male sexual cells.
The archegonia are flask-shaped organs consisting of an investing
layer of sterile cells surrounding an axile row of cells, the neck-canal
cells, ventral-canal cells and the egg or female sexual cells. Every
ell of the Buy Cephalexin Online axial row breaks Buy Cephalexin Online down in the process of maturation with
the exception of the Buy Cephalexin Online egg which remains in the basal portion. Both
antheridia and archegonia generally arise on special stalks above the
dorsal surface. After the egg is fertilized by a antherozoid, the
young embryo resulting grows into a sporogonium (the sporophyte)
consisting of a stalk portion partly imbedded in the archegonium
surmounting a sporangium or capsule in which spores are produced.
When mature the capsule splits open discharging the spores. The
spores on germination develop into a protonema or filamentous
outgrowth which later develops the thallus.
Order i. Marchantiales, including Marchantia and Riccia.
Order 2. Jungermanniales, the leafy liverworts, including
Order 3. Anthocerotales, having the most complex sporo-
phyte generations among liverworts, including Anthoceros, and
284 PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY
SUBDIVISION II. MUSCI OR MOSSES
Plants found on the ground, on rocks, trees and in running water.
Their life histories consist of two generations, gametophyte and
FIG. 153. Sphagnum acutifolium, Ehrb. A, prothallus (pr), with a young leafy
branch just developing from it; B, portion of a leafy plant; a, male cones; ch,
female branches; C, male branch or cone, enlarged with a portion of the vegetative
branch adhering to its base; D, the same, with a portion of the leaves removed so
as to disclose the antheridia; E, antheridium discharging spores; F, a single sperm;
G, longitudinal section of a female branch, showing the -archegonia (ar); H,
longitudinal section through a sporogonium; sg l , the foot; PS, pseudopodium; c,
calyptra; sg, sporogonium, with dome of sporogenous tissue; ar, old neck of the
archegonium; J. Sphagnum squarrosum Pers. ; d, operculum; c, remains of calyp-
tra; qs, mature pseudopodium; ch, perichaetium. (Gager, from Schimper.)
sporophyte similar to the liverworts but differ from liverworts,
generally, by the ever-present differentiation of the gametophyte
body into distinct stem and simple leaves, and the formation of the
sexual organs at the end of an axis of a shoot. They are either monoe-
cious, when both kinds of sexual organs are borne on the same plant,
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