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Related article: cetes whose sporophores are crucible- or crater-like. These arise Buy Cephalexin
from a subterranean mycelium and show
an" outer and inner peridial layer. The
outer peridium is roughened at its base.
The inner peridium is leathery and may
or may not be continued over the top.
When mature the crucible-like body
shows black seed-like bodies inside which
resemble eggs in a bird's nest. .Each
one of these is connected with the Buy Cephalexin inner
peridium by a cord which resembles the
umbilical cord of an animal. These
inner bodies are called periodiola (sing.
peridiolum). Each peridiolum consists
of a hard glistening outer layer and a
spongy inner layer surrounding a Buy Cephalexin cavity
into which basida and basidiospores pro-
ject. These fungi are found in stiff
Order 3. Phallales, the carrion or
stink-horn fungi. This, the highest
group of the Autobasidiomycetes, con-
sists of highly and characteristically
colored forms which, when mature, emit
most vile and penetrating odors. The
fruiting body, in each instance, begins
, , , . , FIG. 148. Mature stink-
as an egg-shaped structure which starts Buy Cephalexin horn> Diayophora duplicate
its growth from a widely spread under- (Harshberger, from photo, by
, ,. , , -,-. i W.H. Walmsley.)
ground mycelium of chalky- white color.
As the "eggs" enlarge they push above the surface of the ground.
The central portion, elongating, then breaks through the outer or
peridial portion, which remains as a cup or volva at the base of the
mature fruit body. Upon the summit of the central stalk rests the
cup-like many-chambered gleba. The basidiospores are imbedded
in a greenish fetid slime formed by a mucilaginous disintegration
of the substance of the hymenium. This fetid green material is
attractive to carrion flies which visit the plants and remove the
material with its embedded spores. The latter will riot germinate
until after passing through the alimentary canal of these flies.
CLASS IV. FUNGI IMPERFECTI
An assemblage of varied forms, the life histories of most of which
are imperfectly understood. In this group are included numerous
parasites which produce diseases in crop plants.
SUBDIVISION V. LICHENS, THE LICHENS
Lichens are variously colored, usually dry and leathery plants,
consisting of symbioses of algae and Buy Cephalexin fungi. In each case the fungus
. FIG. 149. A foliaceous lichen, Physica sldlaris (L.) Nyb. t growing on a rock.
The cup-shaped structures are the fruiting bodies (apothecia). At the left are
seen two very young plants. (Gager.}
derives its food from materials manufactured by the algae and in
return extracts water from the substratum and shares it with the
algae. The association is therefore mutually beneficial. Blue-
green and Protococcus forms of Green Algae and Ascomycete Fungi
are for the most part concerned in lichen formation.
TAXONOMY . 28l
Lichens are found on the bark of trees, on rocks, logs, old fences,
etc. The body of a lichen shows a differentiation into two regions:
a more or less compact row of cells on both surfaces, called the epider-
mis; and an inner portion composed of the mycelium of the fungus.
The alga is imbedded in this portion. In most cases the spores are
borne in asci, which are themselves found in closed or open Apothecia.
Scales or soredia are found Buy Cephalexin on many lichens. These consist of a
network of hyphae enclosing algal cells. By becoming detached
from the parent plant, they develop new lichens and so constitute
a means of vegetative propagation.
PIG. i^o.Cetraria islandica. (Sayre.)
According to the manner of growth of the thallus and nature of
attachment to the substratum, three different sub-groups of lichens
may be distinguished, viz.: (i) Foliaceous where the thallus is flat,
leathery and leaf-like and attached to the substratum at different
points. To this group belong Physica and Parmelia. (2) Crus-
taceous, where the thallus closely adheres to rocks and bark of trees.
To this group belong Gr aphis and Pertusaria. (3) Fruticose, where
the thallus is upright and branching. To the last group belong
Cetraria islandica, Buy Cephalexin species of Cladonia, and Usnea.
To the pharmacist and chemist lichens are chiefly of interest
because of the coloring principles which they contain. Species of
Lecanoraand Rocella tinctoria yield, when subjected to fermentation,
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