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Related article: breaks up transversely into short segments,
each of which, by fission occurring among
its cells, grows into a new filament.
Nostoc. Nostoc occurs on the damp
ground bordering streams or in slow bodies
of water as greenish or brownish tough gela-
tinous masses varying in size from a pea
to a hen's egg. When one of these masses
is dissected and examined microscopically,
it is seen to contain, imbedded in a gela-
tinous matrix, numerous serpentine fila-
ments, composed of spherical or elliptical
cells loosely attached to each other in
chain-like fashion. Most of the cells are of
the blue-green vegetative kind but there
occur at intervals larger cells, often devoid PIG II0 . Nostoc , (h ), a
of protoplasm which are termed heterocysts. heterocyst.
Frequently the filaments break apart on
either side of the heterocyst, setting free segments of cells which
grow into new filaments.
SUBDIVISION II. MYXOMYCETES, OR SLIME MOLDS
Terrestrial or aquatic organisms, frequently classified as belonging
to the animal kingdom and found commonly on decaying wood,
leaves, or humous soil in forests. Their vegetative body consists
of a naked, multinucleated mass of protoplasm called the plasmo-
dium, which has a creeping and rolling amosboid motion, putting out
and retracting regions of its body called pseudopodia. The size of
the plasmodium varies from a ten-cent piece to several square feet
of surface. It is net-like, the net being of irregular dimensions.
Like the amoeba the outer portion of the plasmodium is clear and
PIG. in. A, Celebrex Buy B, Comatricha nigra. A, Sporangium, natural size; B, capilli-
tium, 20/1; C, E, Stemonitis fusca; C, sporangium, natural Celebrex Buy size; D and E, capilli-
tia, 5/1, Celebrex Buy 20/1; F, H, Enerlhema papillatum, F, unripe; G, mature sporangium,
10/1: H, capillitium, 20/1. (C, D, after nature. A, F, G, H, after Rostafinski;
B, E, after de Bary in Die nattirlichen Pflanzenfamilien I. i, p. 26.)
watery Celebrex Buy and known as the ectoplasm, the inner portion is granular
and called the endoplasm. Like the amosba and unlike other plants,
this slimy body engulfs solid food by means of its pseudopodia in-
stead of admitting it in solution. It is extremely sensitive to light
being negatively heliotropic, i.e., turning away from the sun's rays.
At the time of reproduction, the plasmodium creeps to the surface.
The whole plasmodium then forms one or more fructifications.
These fructifications vary from cushion-like masses (athallia)
to more elevated bodies in which the net-like structure of the plas-
modium is preserved (plasmodiocarps) to stalked sporangia (spore
cases). All of the fructifications, however, produce spores. Dur-
ing wet weather amoeboid protoplasts (swarm spores] escape from
the spores, each developing a single cilium and moving actively
about. In time the cilia disappear and these swarm spores coalesce
in smaller then larger groups to form a plasmodium.
SUBDIVISION Celebrex Buy III. ALG^
Low forms of thallophytes of terrestrial and aquatic distribution
consisting for the most part of single cells or rows of single cells
joined end to end to form filaments. The higher Celebrex Buy forms, however,
possess structures, which might be compared to stems and leaves of
higher plants although more rudimentary in structure. They
contain chlorophyll or some other pigment, and so can use the COz
and H 2 O in the same manner as higher plants, e.g., in assimilating
and providing for their own nutrition. Archegonia are absent in
CLASS I. CHLOROPHYCE.E, THE GREEN ALG.E
Green algae are unicellular (sometimes motile), filamentous,
colonial, or sheet-like water plants' characterized by the presence of
solitary, or numerous chloroplasts in the cells, which compose the
thallus. These chloroplasts vary considerably in form, being in
some cases spiral bands, in other star-shaped, in others like a napkin
ring, and in others granular. In the chloroplasts of most green
algae are pyrenoids, which consist of a central crystalline portion
of protein Celebrex Buy (aleurone-like) surrounded by a starchy envelope of
variable magnitude. These are called starch centers and the starch
is frequently in the form of rounded, or angular grains. Celebrex Buy The nutri-
tion of these algae is autotrophic. There is a definite nucleus present,
but in the coenocytic forms the nuclei may be many within the
confines of the cell wall. The motile cells have one to many cilia,
as likewise some of the reproductive cells. Reproduction is by cell
division, the formation of zoospores (motile cells), by zygospores
232 PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY
produced by conjugation, by egg cell and sperm cell union (oospores)
oogamous reproduction. Green algae live mostly in fresh water.
Some live in brackish water and a few in the sea. Some are asso-
ciated with fungi to form lichens.
1. Order Protococcales or One-celled Green Algae. This order
contains nearly all of the one-celled green algae excepting the diatoms
Family Pleurococcaceae. Pleurococcus vulgaris is a one-celled
green alga, millions of which, living together in colonial fashion, con-
stitute the so-called "green stain" that is common on the north
sides of tree trunks, stone walls and fences. Each organism con-
sists of a protoplast surrounded by a cell wall of cellulose. The
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