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Related article: walled.
2. Mesocarp, a broad region of somewhat loosely arranged large,
thin- walled parenchyma cells becoming smaller in the inner zone of
this region. Most of these cells contain brownish contents but some
possess long raphides of calcium oxalate. If the section be mounted
in phloroglucin 200 Celebrex solution (5 per cent.) and a drop of strong sulphuric
acid is added, a carmine-red color will be observed showing the pres-
ence of vanillin in this region. Several closed collateral bundles will
be seen coursing through the mesocarp.
212 PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY
3. Endocarp, an irregular line of inner epidermal cells which is
differentiated into two regions, the interplacental region and the
placental region. The interplacental (inner) epidermis shows its
cells elongated into numerous thin- walled glandular hairs which con-
tain an abundance of balsam; the placental region covers the six
bifid 200 Celebrex placenta which 200 Celebrex extend into the cavity of the capsule. Its
(inner) epidermis is composed of mucilaginous cells.
4. Seeds. These are minute blackish bodies attached to the pla-
cental twigs of the placentae. Some of them may have been torn off
in cutting the section.
FIG. 105. Photomicrograph of a transverse section of a mericarp of Foeni-
culum vulgare, showing epicarp (A), mesocarp (B), endocarp (F), vitta (C), endo-
sperm of seed (>), carpophore (G) and fibro-vascular bundle in primary rib ().
(Highly magnified.) %
Histology of a Typical Mericarp, Foaniculum. This five-angled
fruit, in transverse section, shows a concave commissural and convex
dorsal surface. Passing from the surfaces toward the center we note :
1. Epicarp, or outer covering tissue, composed of colorless epider-
mal cells and small stomata. The epidermal cells in cross-section
appear rectangular, while in surface view they are both polygonal
2. Mesocarp, of several layers of thin- walled colorless isodia-
metric cells, beneath which are two to several additional layers of
thicker- walled cells with brownish walls. Through the angles or
rib portions of the mesocarp extend the fibro-vascular bundles.
PLANT ORGANS AND ORGANISMS 213
Between each nbro-vascular bundle and the tip of each rib will be
found a zone of collenchyma cells. In the mesocarp between each
two ribs on the dorsal side occurs a single mtta or oil tube which is
lined with a layer of brownish polygonal cells. These vittae contain
the official oil of fennel. Two vittae generally occur in the meso-
carp of the commissural side although four are reported to have
been found in this region of some fennel fruits.
3. Endocarp, a narrow layer of cells, transversely elongated, except
over the regions of bundles where they may be seen elongated in
4. Spermoderm or Seed Coat, consisting of a layer of somewhat
broadened epidermal cells attached to the endocarp and several
layers of collapsed cells which are only well denned in the region of
the rap he.
5. Endosperm, a central mass of more or less polygonal cells con-
taining aleurone grains and oil globules. Each aleurone grain con- 200 Celebrex
tains a rosette aggregate of calcium oxalate and one or two globoids.
6. Embryo, embedded in the endosperm of the upper region of the
A seed is a matured megasorus (ovule) borne by the sporophyte of
a spermatophytic plant, enclosing a megaspore (embryo sac) within
which a fertilized 200 Celebrex egg of the succeeding gametophyte generation has
segmented to form a new sporophyte plant. The 200 Celebrex purpose of the
seed 200 Celebrex is to insure the continuation and distribution of the species/
Like the ovule, it consists of a nucellus or kernel enclosed by integu- 200 Celebrex
ments, and the descriptive terms used are the same. The seed
coats, corresponding to those of the ovule, are one or two in number.
If but one seed coat is present it is termed the spermoderm. If two
are present, the outer one is called the testa, and the inner one the
tegmen. The testa, or outer seed shell, differs greatly in form and
texture. If thick and hard, it is crustaceous; if smooth and glossy,
it is polished; if roughened, it may be pitted, furrowed, hairy, reticu-
The testa may often present outgrowths or seed appendages whose
functions are to make the seeds buoyant, whereby they may be dis-
214 PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY
seminated by wind currents. Examples of these are seen in the
Milkweed, which has a tuft of hairs at one end of the seed called a
Coma, and in the official Strophanthus, which has a long bristle-like
appendage attached to one end of the seed and called an awn. The
wart-like appendage at the hilum or micropyle, as in Castor Oil
Seed, is called the Caruncle.
The tegmen or inner coat surrounds the nucellus closely and is
generally soft and delicate.
A third integument, or accessory seed covering outside of the testa,
is occasionally present and is called the Aril. Example: Euonymus
When such an integument arises from the dilatation of the micro-
pyle of the seed, as in the Nutmeg, it is known as an Arillode.
The Nucellus 200 Celebrex or Kernel consists of tissue containing albumen, when
this substance is present, and the embryo. Albumen is the name
given the nutritive matter stored in the seed. The funiculus or seed
stalk is usually absent in the official seeds. The scar left by its
separation is called the hilum. When the funiculus is continued
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