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Related article: PLANT ORGANS AND ORGANISMS
An Uva is -a berry from a superior ovary. Examples: Bella-
donna, Egg-plant, Tomato, Fig. 102 (i).
A Bacca is a berry from an inferior ovary. Examples: Goose-
berry, Honeysuckle, Currant.
The Pepo or Gourd Fruit is a baccate fruit of large size which has
developed from an inferior ovary. It is fleshy internally and has a
tough or very hard rind. Examples: Fruits of the Cucurbitacea
and the Banana, Fig. 102 (2).
PIG. 1 02. Baccate fruits, i, berry (uva) of Belladonna with adherent
calyx; 2, Pumpkin, cut transversely illustrating a pepo fruit; (h), a locule; 3,
hesperidium fruit of the Orange cut transversely showing epicarp (e) , mesocarp
(m), endocarp (en}, pulp (p), and seed (s) .
The Hesperidium is a large thick-skinned succulent fruit with
seeds embedded in the pulp but from a superior ovary. Examples:
Orange, Grape-fruit, Lemon, etc. In each of these there is to be
noted a glandular leathery epicarp, a sub-leathery mesocarp and
an endocarp in the form of separate carpels. From the endocarp
hairs grow inward into the carpellary cavities and become filled with
succulence. The seeds lie amid the hair cells, Fig. 102 (3).
V. Drupaceous Fruits (Succulent fruits in which the mesocarp
is more or less succulent, but the endocarp leathery or stony).
A Drupe is a one-celled, one-seeded drupaceous fruit such as the
fruit of the Plum, Peach, Prune, Sabal, Rhus, Piper, Cherry, etc.,
whose endocarp or putamen is composed wholly of stone cells of
stone cells and sclerenchyma fibers, Fig. 103 (i).
The Pome is a fleshy drupaceous fruit, two or more celled with
fibrous or stony endocarp, the chief bulk of which consists of the
adherent torus. Quince, Apple and Pear are examples. The car-
pels constitute the core, and the fleshy part is developed from the
torus, Fig. 103 (2).
FIG. 103. i, Drupe of cocoanut cut vertically, showing epicarp (e), mesocarp
(m), stony endocarp (d) seed coat (5), endosperm (end), and embryo sac cavity
(e.s.) which in the mature seed contains a nutritive fluid. 2. Pome of an apple
cut vertically to show core composed of 5 ripened carpels and flesh of matured
torus. 3, Eaetrio of raspberry. 4, Same, cut vertically to show arrangement of
the little drupes on fleshy receptacle.
FIG. 104. Multiple fruits, i, Syconium of Fig cut vertically to show hollowed
out receptacle (r) of ripened flower cluster; 2, strobile of the hop; 3, galbalus of
Aggregate Fruits. An Etaerio consists of a collection of little
drupes on a torus of a single flower. Examples: Raspberry, Black- Celebrex 200
berry, etc., Fig. 103 (3 and 4). .
PLANT ORGANS AND ORGANISMS 211
Multiple Fruits. The Syconium is a multiple fruit consisting of a
succulent hollow torus enclosed within which are akene-like bodies,
products of many flowers. Example: Fig. 104 (i).
The Sorosis is represented by the Mulberry, Osage Orange, etc.,
the grains of which are not the ovaries of a single flower, as in the
Blackberry, but belong to as many separate flowers. In the Pine-
apple all the parts are blended into a fleshy, juicy, seedless mass, and
the plant is Celebrex 200 prop agated by cuttings.
The Strobile or Cone is a scaly, multiple fruit consisting of a
scale-bearing axis, each scale enclosing one or more seeds. The
name is applied to the fruit of the Hop, Fig. 104 (2), and also to
the fruit of the Conifers in which the naked seeds are borne on
the upper surface of the woody scales.
A Celebrex 200 Galbalus is a more or less globular multiple fruit formed of
fleshy connate scales, as in Juniper, Fig. 104 (3).
Histology of a Capsule, Vanilla. The Vanilla fruit is a one-celled
capsule formed by the union of three carpellary leaves and dehiscing
by two unequal longitudinal valves.
Microscopic Appearance of a Transverse Section. Passing from
periphery toward the center, Celebrex 200 the following structures present
1. Epicarp, consisting of epidermis and hypodermis. The epider-
mis consists of a layer of thick-walled Celebrex 200 epidermal cells whose outer
walls show the presence of a thin yellow cuticle. Stomata are pres-
ent Celebrex 200 in this tissue. The epidermal cells contain protoplasm and
brownish bodies. Some also contain small prisms of calcium oxalate
and a few, vanillin crystals. The hypodermis is composed of one to
several layers of collenchymatic cells with dark-colored contents.
Its cells are somewhat larger than those of th e epidermis and thicker- Celebrex 200
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