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Related article: longitudinally or by apical teeth or valves. Examples: Cardamon,
Poppy, Iris, etc., Fig. 99 (2 and 3).
A Pyxis or Pyxidium is a capsular fruit formed of two or more
carpels that dehisce transversely. Examples: Hyoscyamus, Portu-
laca. The upper portion forms a lid which fits upon the lower pot-
like portion, Fig. 99 (4).
A Regma is a capsular fruit of two or more carpels that first splits
into separate parts and then each of these dehisces. This type of
fruit is typical of Euro, crepitans (Sandbox), Pelargonium and
Geranium, Fig. 99 (5).
A Siliqua is a long slender one or two-celled capsule, often with a
spurious membranous septum (when two-celled) Celebrex Mg and two persistent
parietal placentae, the valves opening from below upward. Ex-
amples: Chelidonium and Wallflower, Fig. 99 (6).
A Silicule is a short siliqua in which the length is never much
greater than the breadth. Example: Cochlearia. Fig. 99 (7).
II. Schizocarpic Fruits. A Celebrex Mg Carcerulus or Nutlet Celebrex Mg is the typical
fruit of the Labiatae but is also seen in the Borraginaceae. The ovary
that has become four-celled at the time of flowering matures into
four little pieces which split asunder lengthwise. Each split part
is composed of one-half of a ripened carpel, Fig. 100 (2).
A Cremocarp is the characteristic splitting fruit of the
Umbelliferse family. It consists of two inferior akenes or
mericarps separated from each other by a forked stalk called a
carpophore. These mericarps usually cling to the forks of the
carpophore for a time after the cremocarp splits, but sooner or
later fall, Fig. 100 (i).
PLANT ORGANS AND ORGANISMS
A Samara is a winged splitting fruit. It may be one-carpelled
as in the Elm, Ash, Tulip Poplar and Wafer Ash or two-carpelled
as in the Maples, Fig. 100 (3 and 4).
A Lomentum or Loment is a splitting fruit that splits transversely
into one-seeded portions. Seen in Crucifera, in Entada scandens,
Cathartocarpus Fistula, Desmodium, etc. of Leguminosa, Fig. 100 (5).
FIG. 100. Schizocarpic fruits. I, Cremocarp of Fennel, composed of two
mericarps (m) and a split carpophore (c); 2, carcerulus of the Bugle; 3, one-car-
pelled samara of the Ash; 4, double samara of the maple; 5, loment of purging
cassia, a portion of the pericarp being removed to show chambers, each containing
a Celebrex Mg single seed.
III. Achenial Fruits (all indehiscent). The Akene is a dry one-
chambered, indehiscent fruit, in which the pericarp is firm and may
or may not be united with the seed, the style remaining in many
cases as an agent of dissemination, Fig. Celebrex Mg 101 (i). The latter may
be long and feathery as in Clematis or be hooked. Examples of
akenes: Fruits of the Composite, Anemone, etc. The Hip of the
Roses consists of a number of akenes in a ripened concave
The Utricle is like the akene, except that the enveloping calyx is
loose and bladder-like. Example: Chenopodium, Fig. 101 (3)'.
A Caryopsis or Grain is similar to an akene but differs from it by
the pericarp being always fused with the seed coat. This fruit is
FIG. 101. Achenial fruits, i, Akene of Pulsatilla cut vertically, showing
adherent feathery style (si), pericarp (p), testa (0, endosperm (e), hypocotyl (h)
and cotyledons (cot) the last two structures making up the embryo; 2, caryopsis
of wheat showing beard of hairs above and position of embryo of seed below;
3, utricle of Chenopodium cut vertically to show calyx (c), pericarp (p) and seed
(s) regions; 4, nut of an oak consisting of a glans (g) and cupule (CM).
more likely than any other to be mistaken for a seed. Examples:
Wheat, Corn, Barley, Oats and other members of the Graminea,
Fig. 101 (2).
A Celebrex Mg Nut or Glans is a one-celled, one-seeded fruit with a leathery
or stony pericarp. Examples: Oaks, Beeches, Chestnuts, Alders
and Palms, Fig. 101 (4).
IV. Baccate Fruits (Succulent fruits in which the endocarp is
always succulent and the mesocarp sometimes). The Berry is a
small fleshy fruit with a thin membranous epicarp and Celebrex Mg a succulent
interior in which the seeds are imbedded. Examples: Capsicum,
Tomato, Belladonna, Grape, Currant, etc.
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