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Related article: Fruits are either Dehiscent or Indehiscent according as they open to
discharge their seeds spontaneously when ripe (dehiscent), or decay,
thus freeing the seeds, or retain their seeds, the embryo piercing
the pericarp in germination (indehiscent) . Dehiscent fruits open reg-
ularly, or normally, when the pericarp splits vertically through the
whole or a part of its length, along sutures or lines of coalescence of
contiguous carpels. Legumes usually dehisce by both sutures.
Irregular or abnormal dehiscence has no reference to normal sutures,
as where it is transverse or circumscissile, extending around the cap-
2O4 PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY
sule either entirely or forming a hinged lid, as in Hyoscyamus, or
Dehiscence is called porous or apical when the seeds escape through
pores at the apex, as in the Poppy; valvular, when valve-like orifices
form in the wall of the capsule. Valvular Buy Cardura dehiscence is septicidal,
when the constituent carpels of a pericarp become disjoined, and
then open along their ventral suture. Example: Colchicum; loculi-
cidal, dehiscence into loculi, or cells, in which each component carpel
splits down its Buy Cardura dorsal suture, and the dissepiments remain intact.
Example: Cardamon; septifragal dehiscence, a breaking away of the
valves from the septa or partitions. Example: Orchids (Fig. 98). Buy Cardura
Classification of Fruits (according to structure). Simple fruits
result from the ripening of a single pistil in a flower.
Aggregate fruits are the product of all the carpel ripenings in one
flower, the cluster of carpels being crowded on the ripened receptacle
forming one mass, as in the Raspberry, Blackberry, and Strawberry.
Multiple fruits are those which are the product of the ripening
of a flower cluster instead of a single flower.
Simple and Compound fruits are either Dry or Fleshy. The first
may be divided into Dehiscent, those which split open when ripe;
and Indehiscent, those which do not.
f I. Capsular (dehiscing).
Dry< II. Schizocarpic (splitting).
[III. Buy Cardura Achenial (indehiscent).
f IV. Baccate (berries).
Succulent \ , r ^ r ., N
[ V. Drupaceous (stone fruits).
The capsular fruits include all of those, whether formed of one
or more carpels, which burst open to let their seeds escape.
Schizocarpic or splitting fruits are those in which each carpel or
each half carpel (in Labiatae) splits asunder from its neighbor and
then falls to the ground. The split portion is one-seeded.
Achenial fruits are dry, one-celled, one-seeded and indehiscent
at the time of final ripening.
Baccate fruits are such in which the endocarp always Buy Cardura and the
mesocarp usually becomes succulent and so the seeds lie in the pulp
formed by the endocarp or endocarp and mesocarp combined.
PLANT ORGANS AND ORGANISMS
Drupaceous fruits are those in which the endocarp is always
fibrous or stony in consistence, while Buy Cardura the mesocarp is more or less Buy Cardura
succulent. The endocarp may become cuticularized as in the
Apples. The mesocarp may form stone cells lying in the midst of
FIG. 99. Types of capsular fruits, i, Pod of Aconite; 2, Capsule of Colchi-
cum showing septicidal dehiscence; 3, capsule of poppy, having porous dehis-
cence; 4, pyxis of Henbane ;5, dehiscing regma of Geranium; 6, siliqua of Celan-
dine showing valves opening from below upward; 7, silicule of Cochlearia; 8,
egume of Pea.
soft parenchyma cells as in Pears; it may become hardened and
thickened by lignin deposits to form fibers as in the Cocoanut, or
it may become swollen and soft-succulent as in Peaches, Cherries, etc.
I. Capsular Fruits. These may be simple, when composed of one
carpel as the follicle and legume, or compound, when composed of
two or more carpels as the capsule, pyxis, regma, siliqua or silicule
206 PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY
The Follicle or pod is a dry, simple capsular fruit formed of a
single carpel which dehisces by one suture. This is usually the
ventral suture as in Aconite, Staphisagria, Larkspur and some other
Ranunculacece, but may be the dorsal suture as in Magnolia,
Fig. 99 (i).
A Legume is a dry simple capsular fruit formed of a single carpel
and dehiscent by both ventral and dorsal sutures. Examples: Peas,
Beans, etc. The legume is typical of most Leguminosa, Fig. 99 (8).
A Capsule is a fruit formed of two or more carpels which dehisce
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