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FIG. 94. Illustrating various forms of the corolla, i, Personate bilabiate
corolla of Linaria; 2, cruciform corolla of Rocket; 3, campanulate corolla of
Harebell; 4, infundibuliform corolla of Bindweed; 5, ringent Cardizem 240 bilabiate corolla of
Larkspur; 7, Ligulate corolla of Chrysanthemum; 8, rotate corolla of Pimpernel;
9, papilionaceous corolla Cardizem 240 of Irish Broom; 10, urceolate corolla of Heath.
1 88 PHARMACEUTICAL Cardizem 240 BOTANY
When of nearly cylindrical form, the corolla is Tubular, as in the
Honeysuckle, and Stramonium.
Funnel-form (Infundibuliform), such as the corolla of the common
Morning Glory, a tube gradually enlarging from the base upward
into an expanded border or limb.
Campanulate, or Bell-shaped, a tube whose length is not more
than twice the breadth, and which expands gradually from base to
apex. Examples: Cardizem 240 Canterbury Bell, Harebell.
Urceolate, or Urn-shaped, when the tube is globose in shape and
the limb at right angles to its axis, as in the official Uva Ursi, Chima-
phila and Gaultheria.
Caryophyllaceous, when the corolla consists of five petals, each
with a long slender claw expanding abruptly at its summit into a
broad limb. Examples: Carnation and other members of the Pink
The Androecium or Stamen System. The andrcecium is the single
or double whorl of male organs situated within or above the corolla.
It is composed of stamens or microsporophylls.
A complete stamen (Fig. g^D) consists of a more or less slender
stalk portion called a filament and a Cardizem 240 terminal appendage called the
anther or microsorus. The anther is generally vertically halved by
an upgrowth of th'e filament, called the connective, dividing the anther
into two lobes.
Number of Stamens. When few in number, stamens are said
to be definite; when very numerous, and not readily counted, they
are indefinite. The following terms are in common use to express Cardizem 240
Monandrous, for a flower with but one stamen.
Diandrous, with two stamens.
Triandrous, with three.
Tetrandrous, with four.
Pentandrous, having five.
Polyandrous, an indefinite number.
The most primitive flowers have numerous stamens, but passing
from these to those of more evolved families there occurs a gradual
reduction from many to ten, as in Caryophyllacece, Leguminosa and
PLANT ORGANS AND ORGANISMS
some Aceracea, these being in two circles. In Malvacea, Umbelliferce
and other Apopetalous families as well as many Sympetalae, the
number five is typical. But in Scropkulariacece, while five are devel-
oped and fertile in Verbascum, four with a fifth staminode (sterile
stamen) are found in the allied genus Celsia. In Pentstemon there
are four didynamous fertile stamens and an equally long staminode.
In Scrophularia the fifth staminode is reduced to a petaloid flap in
the posterior part of the flower. In Linaria this exists only as a
small knob at the base of the back part Cardizem 240 of the corolla and there
secretes nectar. In most Scrophulariacece the fifth stamen is entirely
absent and the four stamens left are didynamous; but in
Calceolaria two of these are rudimentary and thread-like, the
other two alone being well-developed and fertile. In Veronica
three stamens are entirely absorbed and two only are left as
Insertion of Stamens. As to insertion the stamens may be :
Hypogynous, when inserted upon the receptacle below the base of
the pistil (see Fig. 93^4).
Perigynous, when inserted on the calyx or corolla above the base of
and lateral to the pistil (see Fig. 93$).
Epigynous, when inserted above the ovary (see Fig. 936").
Gynandrous, when inserted upon the pistil, as in Orchids and Aris-
Proportions of the Stamens. The stamens may be of equal length;
unequal, or of different length.
Didynamous, when there are two pairs, one longer than the other.
Tetradynamous, three pairs, two of the same length, the third
shorter. Example: Mustard.
Connation of Stamens. Terms denoting connection between sta-
Monadelphous (in one brotherhood), coalescence of the filaments
into a tube. Example : Lobelia.
Diadelphous (in two brotherhoods), coalescence into two sets.
Triadelphous, with filaments united into three sets. Example:
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