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Related article: (resembling methyl-strychnin), so that Brucin is less useful therapeutically (cf. Dixon
and Harvey, 1908).
Brom-Strychnins. The two mono-brom-strychnins act similarly to strychnin, but
are only }> or }^ as effective. Dibrom-strychnin is also convulsant, but in frogs it
produces mainly the curare effect (C. R. Marshall, 1912).
Other Spinal Convulsants. Spinal tetanus, in every respect similar to that of
strychnin, is produced by caffein, thebain (an opium alkaloid), gelsemin, calabarin and
hydrastin, etc. It is also a late phenomenon in morphinized frogs. Tetanus ioxin
likewise increases spinal tetanus, the minor differences being due mainly to peculiarities
of absorption (Froehlich and Meyer, 1915).
The Convulsant Action of Sulphonated Dyes; Inhibitory Action of Cerebrum. Acid
Fuchsin (Barbour and Abel, 1910), and other water-soluble, neurophilic sulphonated
dyes (Macht, 1912), produce strychnin-like convulsions in frogs. In normal frogs, the
tetanus occurs only after a long latent period (up to twenty hours), and requires rela-
tively large doses. If the anterior third of the cerebrum is removed (either before or
after the injection), the convulsions Buy Buspar occur much more promptly (within thirteen min-
utes), and very much smaller doses (}^Q to Mo) suffice. The anterior cerebrum therefore
exercises a strong inhibitory Buy Buspar effect on the convulsant action of these drugs (much less,
if any, on other convulsant poisons). With the cerebrum intact, the latent period is
also shortened by voluntary fatigue.
Cardicctomized Frogs. Joseph and Meltzer, 1911, found that the late convulsant
action of acid fuchsin, and of morphin, could be greatly hastened, and that a very much
smaller dose would suffice, in frogs in which the heart had been tied, the circulation of
the blood being thus arrested. According to Abel, 1912, this interesting observation is
explained by the peculiar distribution of the poison. The ligation of the heart prevents
the dissipation of the poison in the body, and the anterior lymph hearts drive the solution
directly into the communicating vessels of the central nervous system. This is there-
fore exposed to a much more concentrated solution. At the same time the interrup-
tion of the normal circulation, and the partial asphyxia, increase the sensitiveness of
the nervous system to convulsants; for the outbreak of these is hastened even if the
heart is excised after the drug has been injected. Meltzer, however, does not accept
this explanation.
Carbon Dioxid. This also greatly hastens the convulsions, when its tension in the
air exceeds 20 per cent. (Joseph, 1915). The gas also lowers the threshold for strych-
nin convulsions (Pilcher and Sollmann, 1915).
Therapeutic Use of Strychnin in Paralyses. Strychnin and nux
vomica are used to preserve muscular nutrition in paralysis from func-
tional neurites and higli lesions; to raise the Buy Buspar tone of the rectal and vesical
sphincters in incontinence of urine or feces; to improve the effects of
cathartics, especially in atonic constipation. It is also used (but is of
doubtful value) in sexual impotence. Most of these uses have been dis-
cussed in the text.
Paralytic Disorders. It should be remembered that strychnin only increases the
excitability of existing structures. It must therefore be useless in organic Buy Buspar lesions of the
cord. In spastic paralysis, and in inflammatory conditions, it would be contraindicated.
Moderate doses (i to 2 mg., three times a Buy Buspar day) may be useful in functional depression
of the cord (lead poisoning, or sometimes in diphtheritic paralysis); but its main indi-
cations are for maintaining the muscular tone, and thereby preventing muscular
atrophy whilst awaiting the repair of cerebral lesions (apoplexy); but it must be re-
membered that large doses of strychnin may bring apoplectic attacks in predis-
posed patients. The trophic effect should be supported by massage and electricity.
Strychnin is also said to lessen the pain of some older paralyses.
Incontinence of Buy Buspar Urine. Strychnin would be useful only if the incontinence is due to
atony of the sphincter; if due to overaction of Buy Buspar the detrusor urinae, the indication would be
for atropin.
Sexual Impotence. The spinal stimulation of strychnin would be useful theoret-
ically; in fact, however, the condition requires either suggestion or systematic general
tonic treatment. The reputed specific nerve tonics (phosphorus, etc.) act mainly as
general tonics; whilst others (damiana, zinc, yohimbin) act mainly by suggestion.
Medullary Actions of Strychnin. These are analogous to its effects
on the spinal cord, consisting in a more or less violent and convulsive
STRYCHNIN 19!
exaggeration of the reflex excitability, particularly of the respiratory and
vasomotor centers, followed by paralysis with toxic doses. These effects
are more or less modified by the coexistence of asphyxia.
These medullary stimulations are very marked and violent with con-
vulsive doses. With therapeutic doses, they are so slight that they can
not be demonstrated with certainty, either clinically or experimentally.
The therapeutic use of strychnin as a respiratory or circulatory stimulant
therefore rests on Buy Buspar a very insecure basis. It was doubtless due mainly to
the uncritical transfer of the results of convulsive doses to therapeutic Buy Buspar
doses.
Therapeutic Doses on the Circulation. These produce either no effect
whatever, or a very slight (10 to 20 mm.) rise of blood pressure, fairly Buy Buspar
well sustained. The rise is rather more marked in the diastolic pressure.
Direct observation of the vasomotor center may also, but exceptionally
show a slight and doubtful stimulation ; but in asphyxia, the same doses (0.05
mg. per kg.) cause intense vasomotor stimulation (Pilcher and Soll-
mann, 1915). These effects (aside from asphyxia) are so inconstant and
small that they could be accidental. The cardiac contractions are not
FIG. 5. Convulsive doses of strychnin on blood pressure.
changed. Clinical observations on the blood pressure and heart rate, in
health and in various diseased conditions (cardiac diseases, fevers, etc.),
give similarly negative or inconclusive results, even when rather large
doses (Ko gr. every hour) were used (Cabot, 1904; Parkinson and Row-
lands, 1913 and i9i4;Neuburgh, i9i5;Lucas, 1914). Thepositiveresults|of
Cook and Briggs, 1903, and of Marvin, 1913, must therefore be viewed
with suspicion.
Convulsive Doses. Whilst small doses of strychnin have but little
effect on the circulation, convulsive doses cause very conspicuous changes;
especially a large rise of blood pressure, due to central vasomotor stimula-
tion, produced mainly by the direct action of strychnin on the center;
but aided by the convulsions and asphyxia. This is followed by vaso-
motor depression.
These effects are synchronous with the convulsions: the typical course is shown in
Fig. 5. With the Buy Buspar onset of the irregular spasms at (b) the mean pressure rises (central
vasomotor stimulation), the heart being slowed and strengthened (central vagus stimu-
IQ2 MANUAL OF PHARMACOLOGY
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