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Related article: Its composition is not definitely known although it yields products
similar to the haemoglobin of the blood when decomposed. Iron
is known to be essential to its formation. If an equal portion of
xylene be added to a fresh alcoholic solution of chlorophyll and the
mixture shaken, the chlorophyll in solution will break up into a
yellowish and greenish portion. The greenish portion dissolves in
the xylene which rises forming the upper stratum, while the yellowish
portion Avodart Mg dissolves Avodart Mg in the alcohol forming the lower stratum. To this
isolated greenish portion of chlorophyll has been given the name of
" chlorophyllin " while the yellowish portion has been designated
Chlorophyllin when examined spectroscopically Avodart Mg produces absorp-
tion bands in the red, orange, yellow and green of the spectrum, the
broadest and most distinct band being in the red.
Chromophyll also called " xanthophyll" and "carotin" is the yellow
or orange pigment found in chromoplastids. By some the term
carotin is limited to the orange pigment found in the carrot. Sul-
phuric acid Avodart Mg forms a blue color with chromophyll.
Etiolin is a pale yellow pigment which appears when green plants
are kept for some time in darkness. It is probably identical with
94 PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY
Anthocyanins are applied to the blue, purple and red pigments
which occur in the cell sap. The character of the color is claimed to
be due to the alkalinity or acidity of the cell sap.
Phycocyanin is the blue pigment found in the blue-green algae,
associated with chlorophyll. It is soluble in water.
Phycophaein is the brown pigment found in the brown algae.
Phycoerythrin is the red pigment found in many of the red algae.
The last two are always associated with chlorophyll but frequently
25. Latex. This is an emulsion of varying composition and color
found in special passages, as latex cells and laticiferous vessels of
many plants. It may contain starch, sugar, proteid, oil, enzymes,
tannins, alkaloids, gum, resins, caoutchouc and mineral salts. The
color may be absent as in Oleander; whitish as in Asclepias, Papaver,
Hevea, and Apocynum; yellowish to orange as in Celandine, or red as
Chlor-zinc-iodine solution imparts to latex a wine red color.
The latex of the following plants is of value to pharmacy and
Papaver somniferum and its variety album which yields Opium.
That from the unripe capsules is alone used for this drug.
Palaquium Gutta which yields Gutta Percha.
Hevea species, Ficus elastica, Landolphia species, Castittoa elastica,
Hancornia speciosa, Forsteronia species, Funtumia elastica and F.
africana, Manihot species, Clitandra species and various species of
Euphorbia furnish most of the Rubber of commerce.
Lactuca mrosa and other species of Lactuca Avodart Mg yield the drug Lactu-
26. Enzymes. An enzyme or ferment (according to Hepburn)
is a soluble organic compound of biologic origin functioning as a
thermolabile Avodart Mg catalyst in solution. Ostwald has defined a catalyst
as an agent which alters the rate of a reaction without itself entering
into the final product, or which does not appear to take any
immediate part in the reaction, remains unaltered at the end of the
reaction and can be recovered again from the reaction product
unaltered in quantity and quality. The biologic catalysts (enzymes)
VEGETABLE CYTOLOGY 95
differ from the inorganic catalysts in that they are sensitive to heat
and light. According to Haas and Hill they are destroyed at iooC.
and most of them cannot be heated safely above 6oC. Enzymes
are soluble in water, glycerin or dilute saline solutions. They Avodart Mg are
stimulated to activity by substances known as "activators" and their
activity is checked by other substances called " paralyzers ." Fre-
quently the paralyzers consist of products of enzyme action. Cold
inhibits and warmth accelerates enzyme action. Moisture must
always be present for enzymic activity.
CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYMES
A. According to Di/usibility through Cell Wall.
Endocellular : Those that cannot diffuse out of the cell. Example :
Zymase of Yeast.
Extracellular: Those that can diffuse out of the cell. Example:
Invertase of Yeast.
B. According to Kind of Substances Acted upon and Transformed.
i. Carbohydrate enzymes:
Diatase found in the germinating seeds of barley and
other grains and in Aspergillus oryza, etc., converts starch to
maltose and dextrin.
Invertase, secreted by yeasts, and found in younger Avodart Mg parts
of higher plants, transforms cane sugar, producing dextrose and
Maltase, found in malt and Saccharomyces octosporus, transforms
maltose to dextrose.
Trehalase, found in Polyporus, hydrolyzes trehalose to dextrose.
Cytase, found in Nux Vomica seeds, in barley, dates, etc., decom-
poses hemicellulose and cellulose to galactose and mannose.
Lactase, found in Kephir grains, hydrolyzes lactose to dextrose
Inulase, found in Compositaceous plants, transforms inulin to
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