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VEGETABLE CYTOLOGY 9 I
Mucilage is stored as reserve food in the tubers of Salep and
many other Orchids and also in the seeds of some species .of the
Cell-content mucilage has been Buy Avodart found in the leaves of Alos,
the rhizomes of Triticum, the Buy Avodart bulb scales of Squill and Onion and
in certain cells of many other Monocotyledons, especially those
containing rap hides.
Membrane mucilage has been observed in Barosma, Ulmus, Buy Avodart
Althaa, Linum, Astragalus, and Acacia species, in the Blue-green
Algae, and many of the Brown and Red Algae.
When mucilage is collected in the form of an exudate from shrubs
and trees it constitutes what is termed a gum. Many of these gums
are used in pharmacy, Buy Avodart medicine and the arts. The three most im-
portant from a pharmaceutical standpoint are: Acacia, yielded by
Acacia Senegal and other species of Acacia; Tragacanth, yielded by
Astragalus gummifer and other Asiatic species of Astragalus; and
Cherry Gum, obtained from Prunus Cerasus and its varieties.
Mucilage may be demonstrated in plant tissues containing it by
placing sections of these in a deep blue solution of methylene-blue
in equal parts of alcohol, glycerin and water on a glass slide, allowing
them to remain in the solution for several minutes, then draining
off the stain and mounting in glycerin. Those cells containing muci-
lage will exhibit bluish contents.
21. Fixed Oils and Fats. These are fatty acid-esters of glycerin
which are found in the vacuoles of cells or formed with the cell
walls from which they may be liberated as globules upon treating
sections with chloral hydrate or sulphuric acid or heating them.
They are quite soluble in ether, chloroform, benzol, acetone and
volatile oils but insoluble in water, and, with the exception of castor
oil, insoluble in alcohol. They are readily distinguished from the
volatile oils in that they leave a greasy stain upon paper which does
not disappear. Fixed oils and fats take a brownish to black color
with osmic acid, a red color with alkannin or Sudan III and a blue
color with cyanin. In Vaucheria, the Diatoms and a few of the
other Thallophytes, fixed oil is formed in the chromatophores in-
stead of starch as the first visible product of photosynthesis. In
higher plants it is generally found in storage regions, such as the
0,2 PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY
parenchyma of seeds, fruits and the medullary ray cells and paren-
chyma of barks, roots and rhizomes.
22. Volatile Oils. These are volatile odoriferous principles found
in various parts of numerous plants which arise either as a direct
product of the protoplasm or through a decomposition of a layer of
the cell wall which Tschirch designates a " resinogenous layer."
They are readily distilled from plants, together with watery vapor, are
slightly soluble in water, Buy Avodart but very soluble Buy Avodart in fixed oils, ether, chloro-
form, glacial acetic acid, naphtha, alcohol, benzin and benzol.
They leave Buy Avodart a spot on paper which, however, soon disappears. They
respond to osmic acid, alkannin, Sudan III, and cyanin stains
similar to the fixed oils and fats.
Volatile oils may be grouped into four classes:
A. Pineries or Terpenes, containing carbon and hydrogen and
having the formula of doHi 6 . Examples: Oil of Turpentine and
various other volatile oils occurring in coniferous plants.
B. Oxygenated oils, containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Examples: Oil of cassia and other cinnamons.
C. Nitrogenated oils, containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
with nitrogen (from HCN). Buy Avodart Example: Oil of Bitter Almonds.
D. Sulphurated oils, containing carbon, hydrogen and sulphur.
Example: Volatile oil of mustard.
23. Resins, Oleoresins, Gum Resins, and Balsams. These sub-
stances represent products of metabolism in many plants which are
formed either normally as Turpentine, Asafcetida, Mastiche, etc.,
or as a result of pathological processes through injury to the plant
tissues as Styrax, Benzoin, Balsam of Tolu and Peru, etc. They
occur usually in special cavities such as secretion cells, glands, or
Resins are insoluble in water but mostly soluble in alcohol. They
combine with alkalies to form soap. Many of them are oxidized
oils of plants. Examples: Guaiacum, Resina.
Oleoresins are mixtures of oil and resin. Examples: Terebin-
thina, Terebinthina Canadensis.
Gum resins are natural compounds of resin, gum and oil. Ex-
amples: Asafcetida, Myrrha, Cambogia.
Balsams are mixtures of resins with cinnamic or benzoic acid or
both and generally a volatile oil. Examples: Balsamum Tolu-
tanum, Styrax, Balsamum Peruvianum.
If sections of a resin containing plant part are placed in a saturated
aqueous solution of copper acetate for a week or two and mounted
in dilute glycerin, the resin will be stained an emerald green.
24. Pigments. These are substances which give color to various
plant parts in which they are found. They occur either in special
protoplasmic structures, as chloroplasts, chromoplasts or chroma-
tophores, or dissolved in tjae cell sap. Of the pigments named
the following will be considered: Chlorophyll, Xanthophyll,
Chromophyll, Etiolin, Anthocyanin, Phycocyanin, Phycophaein,
Chlorophyll is the yellowish-green pigment found in the chloro-
plastids or chromatophores of leaves or other green parts of plants.
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