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VEGETABLE CYTOLOGY 73
iinin threads of the nuclear reticulum shorten, drawing the chro-
matin granules together into a thickened twisted chromatic thread.
This thread splits transversely and thus becomes divided into Buy Avapro a
number of rods termed chromosomes. Each of these then splits into
two longitudinal halves that may be termed the daughter -chromo-
somes. They lie within the nuclear cavity united by delicate Buy Avapro threads.
There now begins a phenomenon concerned with the cytoplasm
which is primarily a process of spindle formation. The granular
cytoplasm accumulates at the poles of the elongated nucleus forming
the cytoplasmic caps. Presently it begins to show a fibrillar struc-
ture, the threads extending outward around the periphery of the
nucleus forming an umbrella-like arrangement of fibers Buy Avapro from both
cytoplasmic caps. With the formation of fibers comes a breaking
down of the nuclear membrane and in consequence the fibers enter
the nuclear cavity and organize the spindle. Some of the fibers
become attached to the split chromosomes and push, draw or pull
them to the equatorial plate, halfway between the poles. Mean-
while the nucleolus disappears. As the chromosomes line up at the
equatorial plate their daughter halves are drawn apart in V-shaped
fashion. The split extends and eventually one daughter-chromo-
some is drawn to one pole and the remaining half to the other. At
the respective poles the daughter chromosomes form a dense com-
pact knot. A cell membrane, composed of material contributed
largely through the shrinking of the spindle fibers, is now formed
through the middle of the spindle. This soon Buy Avapro splits to form a thin
vacuole lying between the two membranes (the plasma membranes) .
Presently there Buy Avapro appears within the vacuole and between the mem-
branes a carbohydrate substance. On either side of this deposit the
plasma membranes form a cellulose membrane. The flattened
vacuole extends toward the periphery and ultimately a complete
cell wall is formed.
The dense compact knots of chromosomes at the poles of the
spindle, that are to form the daughter-nuclei, now begin to expand
and clear mesh-like spaces to appear between the expanding threads.
As this process advances the chromosome substance becomes dis-
tributed throughout the nuclear cavity. It is soon possible to dis-
tinguish the chromatin from the Iinin. Eventually an irregular
74 PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY
network of linin carrying chromatin granules is formed through the
area of the nucleus. A nuclear membrane also is formed and the
nucleolus reappears. The spindle fibers disappear. The daughter-
nuclei increase in size and each daughter-cell formed by this process
now assumes the resting stage.
NON-PROTOPLASMIC CELL CONTENTS
i. Sugars. Sugars comprise a group of crystalline substances
found in the cell sap of many plants either free or in combination
with glucosides. They may be divided into two main groups:
monosaccharoses and disaccharoses. To the former belong simple
sugars containing two to nine atoms of carbon, which are known
respectively as bioses, trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, etc. Of
these the hexoses (CeH^Oe) are the most important and of wide
distribution. Examples of the hexoses found in drug plants Buy Avapro are:
(a) dextrose (grape sugar), found in the leaves, stems, fruits, sprout-
ing grains and nectaries of flowers of nearly all plants; (b) fructose
(levulose or fruit-sugar), commonly associated with dextrose; (c)
d-mannose, found in the saccharine exudation of the Manna Ash
(Fraxinus Ornus)\ and (d) sorbinose, found irf ripe Mountain Ash
berries. Upon evaporating the sap or treating the parts containing
these principles with alcohol they can be crystallized out.
Fliickiger's Micro-chemic Test for the determination of different
kinds of sugars: Dissolve a small portion of copper tartrate in a
drop of sodium hydrate on a glass slide ; in this place the section and
put on the cover slip. If fructose is present cuprous oxide Buy Avapro crystals
will at once be formed without warming. If grape sugar is also
present a gentle warming will produce another crop of reddish-yellow
crystals. If dextrin be present continued heating will still further
augment the number of crystals. Cane sugar and mannite, on the
other hand, will respond negatively to this test. The zymase of
yeasts is capable of fermenting dextrose, levulose and d-mannose
forming carbon dioxide and alcohol. Sorbinose is claimed to be
The disaccharoses, having the chemical formula of Ci 2 H 22 Oii, in-
clude sucrose, maltose, trehalose, melibiose, touranose and agavose.
Of these sucrose is the most important. It is found in the Buy Avapro stems of
VEGETABLE CYTOLOGY 75
sugar cane, sorghum, corn and Mexican grass; in many fleshy roots
notably the sugar beet; in the sap of the sugar maple and various
palms including Cocos nucifera, Phoenix syhestris, Arenga saccharif-
era; in various fruits, as apples, cherries, figs, etc., in the nectaries
of certain flowers; in honey; and in a number of seeds. It crystal-
lizes in monoclinic prisms or pyramids. When sections of plant parts
containing cane sugar are placed for a few seconds in a saturated
solution of copper sulphate, then quickly rinsed in water, trans-
ferred to a solution of i part of KOH in i part of water, and heated
to boiling, the cells containing the sugar take on a sky-blue color.
Invertase of the yeast reduces cane sugar to dextrose and levulose
and zymase of the Buy Avapro same plant ferments these forming carbon dioxide
Maltose is found in the germinating grains of barley and other
cereals as a Buy Avapro product of the action of the ferment diastase on starch.
It reduces Fehling's solution, forming cuprous oxide, but one-third
less with equal weights.
Trehalose or mycose is found in ergot, Boletus edulis, the Oriental
Trehala and various other fungi.
Melibiose is formed with fructose upon hydrolyzing the trisac-
charose melitose which occurs in the molasses of sugar manufacture
and in Australian manna.
Touranose is produced upon hydrolyzing melizitose, a trisaccha-
rose which occurs in Persian manna, and
Agavose is found in the cell sap of the American Century Plant,
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