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Related article:
If a solution saturated at a high temperature is allowed to cool, the priginally dis-
lissolve out the greatest possible amount with the least
ible menstruum. This accomplishes two results: We obtain a
strong extract, and we waste neither drug nor menstruum. There are a
PHARMACEUTIC METHODS 27
number of methods of accomplishing this, each with its advocates. They
are combinations of two extremes: maceration and percolation. Neither
of these is commonly used alone in this country, the practice being to com-
bine the two.
Maceration is by far the simpler process. It consists in simply leaving
the solvent in contact with the drug under suitable conditions for a suffi-
cient length of time.
When maceration alone is employed, a given quantity of the drug is put in a bottle
or other suitable vessel with a definite proportion of the solvent (called menstruum)
and left a certain time, usually a week or two. The liquid is then strained off, the residue
(marc) is expressed and the mixed extract filtered. The details of the process are
influenced by the fineness of the powder, the time of maceration, and the temperature.
Different names are given to the process according to the temperature at which if
is carried out. Maceration proper = room temperature; 30 to 4oC. = digestion' Avapro Mg
boiling = decoction. Possible injury to some constituents by heat, or evaporation o{
a constituent or of the solvent, are objections to the application of heat in certain cases.
This process of maceration is the one almost exclusively employed in Avapro Mg Europe; and
it offers certain advantages, not the least being its simplicity and the constant results
which it gives. Its main disadvantages are the required time and the loss of the extract
retained in the insoluble residue or "marc." Certain drugs are physically unfit for
percolation, since the moistening causes them to form into a tough mass, as good as
impenetrable to the solvent.
The loss of menstruum does not, of course, weigh when an aqueous solvent is used
and only small quantities are prepared. Hence maceration is used in making infusions
and decoctions.
Percolation consists in passing a solvent through a thick layer of the
powder to be exhausted. This exposes a large surface of the latter; the
nearly saturated solvent flows off and fresh unsaturated portions contin-
uously replace it, insuring very rapid solution.
The principle of the method is to pack the powder intp a tall vessel,
with an opening at the bottom, and to let the solvent trickle through it.
Usually Avapro Mg the process is combined with a short previous maceration.
The U. Avapro Mg S. Pharmacopeia defines percolation as consisting in "subjecting a substance Avapro Mg
or a mixture of substances, in powder, contained in a vessel called a percolator, to the
solvent action of successive portions of a certain menstruum, in such a manner that
the liquid, as it traverses the powder in its descent to the receiver, shall be charged with
the soluble portion of it, and pass from the percolator free from insoluble matter."
The details are as follows:
The powder (the fineness of which depends upon the nature of the drug and is
directed for each case by the Pharmacopeia) is moistened in a jar with some of the
menstruum. This moistening is for the purpose of swelling the drug, for if this took
place in the percolator, the drug would become so firmly impacted that the menstruum
could not penetrate through it; or it could even burst the percolator. The moistened
powder is then passed through a coarse sieve and transferred to the prepared percolator,
which it should fill about two-thirds.
The choice of the shape of the percolator depends upon the nature of the drug.
Should the drugs have a tendency to swell Avapro Mg particularly if they are in fine powder or if
weak alcohol menstruum is used, a conical percolator is employed; otherwise, the
cylindrical. The size corresponds to the quantity of the powder.
Arrangement of Percolator. The percolator is prepared in the folio wing manner
(Fig. i): Into the small end there is inserted a cork perforated by a short glass tube
which projects about i cm. inside the percolator. The outer end of this tube is attached
to a piece of rubber tubing, about one-fourth longer than the percolator, and this to a
U-shaped glass tube. This is held to the percolator by a rubber band in such a way
that it can be raised and lowered. The percolator is then set in the stand. A pledget of
absorbent cotton is loosely packed in the neck of the Avapro Mg percolator and this is covered by
a layer of clean sand, and over this goes a well-fitting disk of filter-paper. Then the
moistened drug is pressed in and this is the part of the process which requires the Avapro Mg
greatest skill and judgment, and on it depends the success of the product. It should be
done very evenly, else the menstruum will choose the path of least resistance and some
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