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of Mimosa, Oxalis, Drosera, Desmodium and Dioncea muscipula ex-
hibit this phenomenon to a marked degree. A few instances Buy Atomoxetine only
will be considered. When the tendrils of climbing plants come into
contact with the uneven surface of solid bodies they are induced to
coil. When the tentacles on a modified leaf of the Sundew (Dro-
sera) are stimulated mechanically by an insect or artifically they are
induced to curve over. If a good plant of the Venus Fly-trap (Dioncea)
PiG-32. Mimosa Spegazzini. After the application of a stimulus. Compare
with Fig. 31. (After Steckbeck.}
is selected, it will be seen to possess leaves, the terminal portions
of which are modified as traps for catching insects (Fig. 30). Hairs
will be seen projecting from the upper surface of each valve of the
hinged blade. If one of these hairs is touched with a pencil no re-
action will be evident but if after a lapse of twenty seconds the hair
is touched again, the 2 valves close. If the stamens of Berberis be
touched near the base during Buy Atomoxetine their pollen shedding stage they will
be observed to curve toward the stigma.
68 PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY
The most highly specialized form of thigmotropism observed in
plants appears to be found in Mimosa Spegazzini, a member of the
Bean family. According to Steckbeck "when a mechanical stimu-
lus, such as a forceps pinch, is applied to one of the terminal secon-
dary leaflets after a latent period of less than Y second, the leaflet
stimulated rises and its partner almost at the same time. The
stimulus is then carried down the midrib, the pairs of secondary
leaflets closing in order; in 9 seconds all the secondary leaf lets, have
closed, the midribs converge followed in 3 seconds by a drop of the
entire leaf. The stimulus moves up the other leaflet with the result
that the secondary leaflets close in order. * In 20 seconds after the
stimulus has been applied all of the secondary leaflets are closed.
The stimulus is propagated through the stem to other leaves." 1
(Figs. 31 and Buy Atomoxetine 32.)
4. Reproduction. Protoplasm also shows a very remarkable
ability to increase and to give off detached portions which retain
the infinitely complex peculiarities and properties of the original.
The process, moreover, may be continued indefinitely.
Other physiological characteristics might be added, but the above
are mentioned as the most satisfactory criteria by which living may
be distinguished from non-living matter.
PROTOPLASMIC CELL CONTENTS
Protoplasm consists of four well-differentiated portions:
(a) Buy Atomoxetine Cytoplasm, or the foamy, often granular matrix of protoplasm
outside of the nucleus.
(b) Nucleus or Nucleoplasm, a denser region of protoplasm con-
taining chromatin, a substance staining heavily with certain basic
(c) Nucleolus, a small body of dense protoplasm within the
(d) Plastids, composed of plastid plasm, small discoid, spheroidal,
ellipsoidal or ribbon-shaped bodies scattered about in the cytoplasm.
1 "The comparative histology and irritability of sensitive plants" by D. W.
Steckbeck in Contributions from The Botanical Laboratory of the U. of Pa.,
vol. IV, No. 2, p. 217, 1919.
Sometimes, as in the cells of lower plants like the Spirogyra, plastids
are large and are then called chromatophores.
According to the position of the cells in which plastids occur and
the work they perform, they differ in color, viz:
Leucoplastids are colorless plastids found in the underground
FIG. 33. Buy Atomoxetine A, embryonic cells from onion root tip; d, plasmatic membrane; c, cy-
toplasm; a, nuclear membrane enclosing the thread-like nuclear reticulum; b,
nucleolus; e, plastids (black dots scattered about). B, older cells farther back
trom the root tip. The cytoplasm is becoming vacuolate; /, vacuole. C, a cell
from the epidermis of the mid-rib of Tradescantia zebrina, in its natural condi-
tion on Buy Atomoxetine the right, and plasmolyzed by a salt solution on the Buy Atomoxetine left; g, space left by
the recedence of the cytoplasm from the wall; the plasma membrane can now be
seen as a delicate membrane bounding the shrunken protoplast. All highly mag-
portions of a plant and also in seeds, and other regions given up to
the storage of starch. Their function is to build up reserve starch
from sugar and other carbohydrates as well as to change the reserve
starch back into sugar when it is needed for the growth of the plant.
70 PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY
They are only evident after properly fixing and staining cells con-
Chloroplastids are plastids found in cells exposed to light and con-
tain the green pigment, chlorophyll.
Chromoplastids Buy Atomoxetine are plastids found in cells independent of their
relation to light or darkness and contain a yellow, orange or red
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