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granular-looking. Within the cytoplasm will be observed a number
of clear spaces. These are vacuoles and because they are filled with
cell sap (water with nutrient substances in solution) are called "sap
Protoplasm is in intimate relation to water. The reaction of the
cytoplasm to a bounding film of water between it and the cell wall
forms the outer plasma membrane or ectoplasm, a clear homogeneous
outer band of cytoplasm; the reaction of cytoplasm to the water
cpLnn rf cy
FIG. 29. Portion of inner epidermis of Onion bulb scale showing cells at
various stages of maturity. Young cell (i); old cell (3); Buy Arcoxia cell intermediate in age
between I and 3 (2); cell wall (c); outer plasma membrane (pi)', Buy Arcoxia middle lamella
(ml)\ nucleus (w 1 ); nucleolus (w 2 ); nuclear membrane (w 3 ); cytoplasm (cy);
vacuole (z;). Note that the young cell (i) shows numerous small vacuoles and
spheroidal nucleus near center of cytoplasm. In 2 (cell of intermediate age) the
cell has enlarged, larger vacuoles have formed thru the bursting of films of cyto-
plasm separating smaller ones, and the nucleus has moved toward the cell wall.
In 3, the films have all burst, the cytoplasm and nucleus have been pushed up
against the cell wall, the nucleus is flattened Buy Arcoxia out, and a large vacuole appears in
the center of the cell.
within the sap vacuoles forms the vacuolar membranes; the reaction
of the dense protoplasm of the nucleus to the water in the cytoplasm
around it forms the nuclear membrane. Upon mounting another
portion of epidermis in iodine solution, removing the excess of stain
and adding a drop of sulphuric acid and then examining under high
power, we note that the cell walls of cellulose are stained a deep blue.
A yellow line is evident in the middle of each cell wall and separates
each cell from its bounding cells. This line Buy Arcoxia is the middle lamella
which is composed largely of calcium pectate.
62 PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY
PROTOPLASM AND ITS PROPERTIES
Protoplasm, or living matter, is the more or less semi-fluid, viscid,
foamy, and granular substance in which life resides. It is the
" physical basis of life."
The peculiar properties which distinguish protoplasm from non-
living matter are as follows:
1 . Structure. Protoplasm invariably exhibits structure. No por-
tion of it, however small, has been found to be homogeneous. Each
advance in microscopical technique reveals new complexities. The
protoplasm of a single cell, far from being a single unit, must rather
be looked upon as a microcosm.
2. Metabolism. Perhaps the most significant peculiarity of
living matter is found in its instability and the chemical changes
which continually go on within it. It is constantly wasting away,
and Buy Arcoxia as constantly being built up. These losses and gains are not
upon the exterior surface, but throughout its mass. Its growth and
renewal are by intussusception, or the taking in of new particles,
and storing them between those already present. A bit of pro-
toplasm may retain its indentity Buy Arcoxia while all the matter of which it is
composed is changed over and over. It is like a whirlpool or wave in
a river which remains the same while the water of which it is com-
posed changes continually. Metabolism has been aptly defined by
Huxley as the whirlpool character of the organism.
3. Irritability. All living matter responds to stimulation. When
matter fails to be irritable or responsive to stimuli, we declare it to
be dead. The stimuli that excite reactions in living matter are of
two kinds, viz; intrinsic and extrinsic.
Intrinsic stimuli are inherited stimuli. They determine that the
plant shall conform to a particular type, carry on certain activities,
pass through a definite life cycle, and detach a portion of its own Buy Arcoxia
substance for the formation of new individuals of its kind.
Extrinsic stimuli initiate, inhibit, accelerate or modify the effects
of intrinsic stimuli. They comprise agents of the external world
such as cold, heat, chemicals, food, water, light, oxygen, electricity,
The irritable reactions manifested by protoplasm and living things
to the effects of these external agents will now be considered briefly.
VEGETABLE CYTOLOGY 63
Thermotropism is the response of living substance to the stimulus
of temperature. All living substance is influenced by variations Buy Arcoxia in
temperature. Freezing disintegrates it while excessive heat causes
its coagulation. Active vital phenomena are therefore only evident
within these extremes, the limits differing depending upon the
endurance of the organism under examination. The lowest tem-
perature at which the activity of an organism becomes Buy Arcoxia evident is
known as the minimum, that at which the activities are at their
best, the optimum, and the highest at which they can be continued,
the maximum. Some plants are able to endure greater extremes
of temperature variation than others because of special adaptations.
Thus, certain bacteria produce spores which resist exposure for an
hour to the temperature of liquid hydrogen (-225C) or to that of a
hot air oven at iooC. Many higher plants can endure moderately
low temperatures by the development of a hairy covering; others
which are killed by frost produce seeds which can endure rigid cold,
still others adapt themselves to existence through periods of cold
by passing through a latent stage in the form of bulbs, like the Squill
or the Lily, or rhizomes, as the Blood Root or the Hellebores.
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