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Related article: fied walls.
3. Inner cortex, similar to inner cortex of stem but devoid of leaf-
4. Fundamental parenchyma, similar to same region of stem, in
which are embedded a number of concentric fibro-vascular Purchase Anafranil bundles
arranged in an interrupted circle. Each of these shows a central
xylem mass surrounded by an outer phloem mass. Each bundle is
enveloped by a pericambium and an endodermis or bundle sheath.
Histology of Lamina. In transverse and surface sections the
lamina or blade shows the following structural details:
i. Upper epidermis, of wavy- walled, slightly chlorophylloid, flat
upper epidermal cells, devoid of stomata, but with rather thick
FIG. 15. Transverse section of stipe of Dryopteris Filix-mas showing epi- Purchase Anafranil
dermis (e) ; hypodermis (h) ; inner cortex (ic) ; concentric fibrovascular bundles,
one of which is shown at (&); endodermis (en); pericambium (p); xylem (#),<
and phloem (p). (Photomicrograph.) X 50.4.
2. Mesophyll, of irregular shaped chlorphylloid cells, containing
abundant chloroplasts. Intercellular-air-spaces are found between
various cells which are larger in the lower than in the upper region.
Internal glandular-hairs are frequently to be discerned in many of
3. Concentric vascular bundles or laminar veins, that distribute
sap to, and carry sap from the mesophyll. These are seen to be
LIFE HISTORY OF THE MALE FERN 39
embedded in the mesophyll. The xylem portion of each bundle is
nearest to the upper surface of the leaf and so the bundles approach
the collateral type.
4. Endodermis, a continuous layer of mesophyll cells which sur-
rounds each bundle and binds it in place.
5. Lower epidermis of wavy- walled, flattened, chlorophylloid cells
with thin cuticle and many stomata (breathing pores). Each stoma
is surrounded by a pair of crescent-shaped guard cells which regulate
its opening and closing. The upper and lower epidermis are con-
tinuous around the laminar margin.
Comparative Physiology of Root, Stem and Leaf (Frond). The
primary function of the roots of the Male Fern is that of absorption
of water with mineral salts in solution. The secondary function
is that of support for the stem, the tertiary, that of storing food-
stuffs to tide the plant over the season when vegetative activities
are lessened. Water is the most essential of all materials absorbed
by vegetable organisms. It is found in the soil surrounding the
soil particles with certain mineral salts dissolved in it. The delicate
root-hairs with thin cellulose walls, protoplasmic lining and sap
denser than the soil water, are firmly Purchase Anafranil adherent to these particles.
The soil water diffuses through these walls by osmosis and comes into
relation with the ectoplasm, a delicate protoplasmic membrane,
which has the power of selecting what it wants and rejecting what it
does not need. In this way only such solutes as are of value to the
plant are admitted.' The water with mineral salts in solution, once
within the root-hair protoplast, is called "crude sap." This passes
through the hair into the cortical parenchyma cells which are in
contact with the spiral ducts and scalariform tracheids. It passes
from one cortex cell to another by osmosis and, under considerable
root pressure, is forced into the spiral and scalariform tubes of the
xylem. Therein it is conveyed upward by root pressure through Purchase Anafranil the
tracheids of the stem bundles into those of the leaves and finally
osmoses into the leaf parenchyma cells (mesophyll) .
Carbon dioxide, (CO 2 ), from the air, enters the leaf through the
stomata. From the stomata it moves through the intercellular-air-
spaces to the mesophyll cells which line these, whence Purchase Anafranil it is absorbed .
Within the Purchase Anafranil mesophyll ceUs are found small chloroplasts composed
40 PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY
of protoplasm and chlorophyll. The kinetic energy of the sun's rays Purchase Anafranil
is absorbed by the chlorophyll which j's thus energized to break up
the CO 2 and H 2 O into their component elements C,H and O, and
rearrange them in such a way as to ultimately form sugar or starch.
This process is called photosynthesis. According to von Baeyer,
CO 2 is split into C and O 2 , the C being retained, the O 2 given off.
The nascent C is linked with H 2 O to form CH 2 O (formic-aldehyde) ;
six molecules of this are then united to form grape sugar (C 6 Hi 2 O 6 ).
The formation of starch may be expressed by the following equation :
6C0 2 + sH 2 = C 6 Hi O 5 + 6O 2 . A portion of the grape sugar is
removed from solution by the chloroplast and converted into starch
which is stored up within it; another portion is used to nourish the
protoplasm of the cell. But the greater portion of sugar manu-
factured descends in solution through the phloem cells of the bundles
of the veins, mid-rib and stipe to the stem or roots, where it is re-
moved from solution by the action of the leucoplasts which convert
it into reserve starch. Sugar and starch, however, are not the only
food materials manufactured in the leaf. Proteins are likewise
formed. These are composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen,
sulphur and sometimes phosphorus. They are formed from grape
sugar with the addition of nitrogen and the other elements by the
living protoplasm. The source of nitrogen, sulphur and phos-
phorus is the mineral Purchase Anafranil salts which are found in the crude sap. These
proteins descend through the sieve tubes of the veins, midrib and
petiole to the stem and roots, nourishing all of these parts with protein
Gross Structure and Histology of the Sori and Purchase Anafranil Sporangia. The
sporangia or spore cases are found Purchase Anafranil clustered together in circular
groups on the under surface of the pinnules nearer the mid- vein than
the margin. Each group of sporangia is covered with a membranous
expansion of the epidermis called the indusium. The whole is called
a sorus (Fig. 12) (pi. sori) and contains many sporangia. Each
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