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Related article: Fupi, V.W.K. and Cheap Amaryl Hork, P.C. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., W, 94.
(1982)
Oliveira, C.S. and Sousa, O.C. Rev. Cienc. Agron., Ser. B.4. 3.
(1971)
De Wilde, J.J.F.E. A revision of the species of Trichilia P. Browne
(1968) (Meliaceae) on the African continent. Meded.
Landbouwhoge school Wageningen 68,2:1-207.
Dale, 1. R. and Greenway, P.J. Kenya trees and shrubs. Government of Kenya
(1961) and Hatchards. 187 Piccadilly, London W.I.
- 232 -
PLATE XXXVII. Trichilia emetica Vahl
Plate XXXVII. Trichilia emetica Vahl
A. flowering branchlet
B. young fruits
- 233 -
MAP 37 - Geographic distribution of Trichilia emetica
II 10
- 235 -
1. BOTANICAL NAME: Warburgia ugandensis Sprague
SYNONYMS: Warburgia breyeri Pott
FAMILY: Canellaceae
COMMON NAMES: East African Greenheart, Pepper-bark Tree, Muziga, Museka (Kikuyu),
01-Sokoni (Masai), Sorget, Sok (Kamasia), Musuni (Meru), Omenyakige (Kisii).
2. ECOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION
-Warburgia ugandensis occurs in lowland rain-forest, upland dry evergreen forest and
its relicts in secondary bushland Cheap Amaryl and grassland; also on termitaria in swamp forest.
It occurs in Ethiopia, Zaire, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Transvaal (see distribution
map).
3. DESCRIPTION
A spreading evergreen tree 5-20(-27)m high, 70cm in diameter, bark rough and rich
brown, slash pink; bole short and clear of branches for c.3m. Leaves alternate, simple,
gland-dotted, stipules absent; petiole l-5mm long; blade oblong-lanceolate, elliptic
or oblong-elliptic, 3-15cm long, l-5cm wide, apex and base tapering, margins entire,
glossy dark green above, paler green and dull below, midrib frequently slightly off-centre.
Flowers solitary or in small 3-4 flowered cymes, axillary, regular, bisexual; bracts
ovate-kidney-shaped, thick, 3mm long, 3-3. 5mm wide, only covering the young buds. Sepals
green, ovate, 6-7mm long, 4-4. 5mm wide; petals 10, in whorls, white or greenish, obovate,
5-7mm long, 2.5-3mm wide, gland-dotted, overlapping; stamens 10, Cheap Amaryl united into a tube 4- 5mm
long, 2-3mm in diameter, enveloping the ovary and most of the style; ovary oblong-elongate,
2.6-4mm long. Fruit at first green and ellipsoidal, later subspherical and turning
purplish, up to 5cm in diameter, skin leathery, glandular; seeds compressed, more or Cheap Amaryl less
cordate, yellow-brown, 1-1. 5cm long (Verdcourt, 1956).
Flowering at the beginning of the rainy season; fruits formed later in the rainy
season and may remain on the tree for a long time.
4. ESTABLISHED MODERN PHARMACEUTICAL USES
None known to date.
5. FOLK MEDICINAL USES
Dried bark is commonly chewed and the juice swallowed as a remedy for stomach-ache,
constipation, coughs, colds, fever, muscle pains, weak joints and general body pains. The
bark may also be chewed for toothache. It is also used in powdered form for treatment of
the Cheap Amaryl Cheap Amaryl same diseases. Fresh roots are boiled and the decoction mixed with soup which is
drunk by the Kikuyu of Kenya for the Cheap Amaryl prevention of diarrhoea. Leaves are boiled and the
decoction used for bathing as a cure for several unspecified skin diseases.
- 236 -
The tree has been used medicinally from early times. Under the name Warburgia
salutaris as it is sometimes known, the specific name means "salutary 11 or "health giving".
The inner bark is reddish, bitter and peppery and has a variety of applications as
described above. It provides treatment for the common cold; dried and ground to a snuff
it' is used to clear sinuses; it is chewed, or smoke from the burning bark is inhaled as
a remedy for chest complaints. The bark and roots can be boiled in water and the
decoction drunk for the treatment of malaria.
There is a high demand for the tree because of its medicinal value to the local
people and large trees have been constantly destroyed by herbal traders who harvest the
bark in large quantities and take them to markets for sale. This is a well known
problem in all African countries wherever this species is found.
6. MAJOR CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND MEDICINAL PRODUCTS
The heartwood contains new sesquiterpenoids such as drimenol, warburgin,
warburgiadione, ugandensol ide, ugandensldial , polygodial, cinnamoide, bemadienol ide ,
warburganal, and muzigadial. These compounds exhibit antifeedant activity against army
worm Spadoptera littorialis and . exepta, widely occurring in African crop pests.
The antifeedant activity of warburganal and muzigadial are comparable. These two
compounds belong to the strongest group of antifeedant against African army worm found
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