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1. BOTANICAL NAME: Tecoma stans (L.)Kunth
SYNONYMS: Bignonia stans L.
Tecoma mollis Kunth
Stenolobium stans (L.)Seem.
Stenolobium incisum Rose and Standley
FAMILY : Bignoniaceae
COMMON NAMES: Retamo, Trompetilla, Flor de San Pedro, Corneta amarilla, Hierba de
San Nicolas, Hierba de San Pedro (Mexico); Sauco amarillo (Cuba,
Puerto Rico); Copete (Panama)* Sardinillo (Nicaragua); Palo hueso
(Colombia); Tasto (El Salvador); Candelillo (Costa Rica); Garrocha
(Argentina); Xkanlol (Maya)*, Guiebichi (Zapoteco); Nixtamaxochitl
(Nahuatl); Tronadora (Mexico).
2. ECOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION
Tecoma stans is now widely cultivated throughout the tropics. It is probably native
to Mexico or the West Indies and is now naturalized in tropical America.
A shrub or small tree, up to 12m high; trunk up to 25 cm in diameter; branches with
many raised lenticels, lepidote when young. Leaves opposite, pinnate; stipules absent;
rachis 14cm 180 Mg Allegra or more long; leaflets sessile or subsessile, 1-4 pairs opposite leaflets and
an odd terminal leaflet, lanceolate, elliptic-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 3- 13 cm long,
l-4cm wide, apex long attenuate and acuminate, base cuneate, margins sharply serrate,
papery, glabrous or pilose along the midrib below, especially in the axils of the main
nerves, translucent glands below. Inflorescence paniculate; flowers numerous, bisexual,
irregular, 5-merous; bracts and bracteoles small. Calyx tubular-campanulate, 4- 7mm long,
lobes glabrous or ciliolate, usually with some impressed glands in the upper half; corolla
bright yellow, campanulate-f unnel-shaped, 3 5- 5 5mm long, the limb up to 35mm in diameter,
glandular in bud, lobes white and ciliate; 10-22cm long, 0.7cm wide, apex long attenuate,
glossy. Seeds transversely oblong with broad, membraneous, whitish wings, compressed,
up to 7mm long, 30mm wide.
Flowering and fruiting throughout most of the year.
4. ESTABLISHED MODERN PHARMACEUTICAL USES
The alkaloids tecomine and tecostanine isolated from the leaves of T. stans have been
administered as salts, intravenously and orally, in normal rabbits and in rabbits with
experimental diabetes. The oral dose of 50 mg/kg and the corresponding intravenous dose
of 20 mg/kg produced a considerable fall in the levels of glycaemia in the normal animal;
in a rabbit subjected to total pancreatectomy, these drugs did not have any hypoglycemiant
effect; however, continuous administration of these alkaloids produced an improvement in
animals with diabetes induced by aloxana, which seems to indicate that both alkaloids
produce their hypoglycemiant effect only when the pancreas is present.
More recent studies have shown that intravenous injection of the watery extracts of
leaves of T. stans produces 180 Mg Allegra a fall in the levels of blood glucose in a normal anaesthetized
dog three hours after the product is injected. Apparently this product does 180 Mg Allegra not act on the
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pancreas, and the same hypoglycemiant effect has been reported 180 Mg Allegra after oral administration
of an infusion of T. stans leaves to normal rabbits and rabbits with hyperglycemia and
These results have led to renewed scientific interest in the study of this very
popular Mexican remedy, and points to the need for a more adequate clinical evaluation
of the medicinal importance of a resource which, despite the little medical interest it
has attracted, continues to be in great demand among herbalists in Mexico and other
5. FOLK MEDICINAL USES
It is not known when T. stans was first introduced into Mexico's traditional medical
practices; the old Spanish chronicles of the colonial period do not make any particular
reference to the medicinal effects of this plant, although Hernandez, a Royal Doctor,
described it in his work of 1570 under the indigenous name of nixtamalyxochitl oapenensi.
At the beginning of the present century, some Mexican scientists included it in their
works on medical matters, recommending an infusion of the leaves of T. stans for the
treatment of hyperglycaemia. It has also been attributed properties as a eupeptic and
general tonic, to combat gastritis of alcoholic origin and dysentery. For such purposes
it is recommended that, an infusion of the leaves be drunk daily. The roots 180 Mg Allegra of the tronadora
have been recognized to possess diuretic, tonic and even antisyphilitic properties, although
none of these have been scientifically corroborated.
At present the Mexican people use mainly an infusion of the leaves of tronadora to
control the symptoms of Diabetes mellitus. The use of Tecoma stans to combat hyperglycaemia
for almost 180 Mg Allegra 100 years has aroused scientific interest in identifying the principles
responsible for this property attributed to Tecoma in folk medicine.
6. MAJOR CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND MEDICINAL PRODUCTS
At the beginning of the present century two products were recognized in the plant: a
bitter alkaloid that was called "bignonine", and another volatile alkaloid known as
"tecomanine". Attempts to demonstrate by experiments the hypoglycemiant effect of the
substances in laboratory animals did not give conclusive results. Later it was reported
that an infusion of this plant attenuates sensations of hunger and thirst, and lowers the
concentration of sugar in the urine of diabetics. These studies carried out in Mexico in
the first decade of the previous century were complemented by others which led to a great
interest among scientists in other countrfes, whose studies will be mentioned later.
The continued and successful use among the people of Mexico of Tecoma stans for the
treatment of Diabetes mellitus led 180 Mg Allegra to the appearance on the market of a pharmaceutical
preparation (fluid extract and tincture) based 180 Mg Allegra on tronadora leaves, which later gave rise
to two patent medicines (Glucolisina and Diabetoline) which continue to enjoy a great
reputation and are much in demand among the people, although their curative powers have
not been given official medical recognition. Although it has been known since the last century
that 180 Mg Allegra alkaloids are present in Tecoma stans, the chemical structure of these compounds was
clarified only towards 1960, through the studies started by Hammouda and Motawi. These
authors gave the name "tecomine 11 to one of the pyrindane-type alkaloids extracted from
this plant. Later Jones isolated from the same species a second alkaloid, called "tecomanine", 180 Mg Allegra
whose physical constants corresponded to those described by Hammouda for "tecomine 11 . By
agreement between the two, the name now accepted to denote this substance is "tecomine 11 .
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