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MAP 20 - Geographic distribution of Luehea paniculate
~8JO ""7T(f 6|0 ' - 5|0
Herbarium specimen Buy Acyclovir Online
University of Brasilia
- 131 -
1. BOTANICAL NAME: Maytenus buchananii (Loes.) Wilczek
SYNONYMS: Gymnosporia buchananii Loes.
Maytenus ovata (Walp.) Loes. var. ovata forma pubescens
COMMON NAMES: Mudziadzyah (Digo, Kenya), Umutukuza, Urutka (Rwanda),
Mukululubishia (Katenga), Mutumbwishia (Zambia), Musoma
(Kindembo, Zaire)) Umushubi (Musaka, Zaire), Mubamba ngoma,
Mumpulukuswa, Pulukusva (Kitabwa, Zaire), Musonga, Sombo
(Kiluba, Zaire), Umasakara, Umutukaza ( Buy Acyclovir Online Kinyaruanda , Zaire)
2. ECOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION
An understorey, light demanding tree of open lowland, montane and riverine forests
and forest margins, also high rainfall savanna woodlands. It occurs on a wide range of
soils including sandy, larval and limestone soils; acid soils preferred. Altitudinal
distribution Buy Acyclovir Online ranges between 15 and 2400m, but according to herbarium records the main
distribution lies between 1100 and 1500m.
In the absence of any published information the climatic parameters have been
obtained by comparing the distribution of the species with the climatic diagrams of
Walter & Lieth (1969). The inferred rainfall is 850-2000 (-3000) mm per annum with a
short dry season. The mean annual temperatures are 19-28 C. It is inferred that
Maytenus buchananii is unlikely to be frost tolerant.
The species is widely distributed in tropical Africa being recorded from Ivory
Coast, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Fernando Po, Central African Republic, Zaire, Buy Acyclovir Online Rwanda,
burundi, S. Sudan, S. Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia
Angola (see distribution map).
Shrub or small evergreen tree 2-12m high, sometimes more or less scandent, with
paired spines up to 2.8mm long; inner bark of large stems red with a thin, bright
yellow layer just under the outer grey surface; small stems pink slash without yellow
layer and can be confused with Flacourtia spp.; branches more or less flattened and
angular, brown to grey, puberulous when young. Leaves spirally arranged, simple,
petiolate; petiole 2-9mm long, pale when green to wine red; lamina elliptic or elliptic-
oblong to ovate, oblanceolate or Buy Acyclovir Online suborbicular , 1-1. 7cm long, 0.8-8cm wide, apex obtuse Buy Acyclovir Online to
rounded or rarely acute to shortly acuminate, especially when young, base attenuate to
cuneate, rarely rounded, margins shallowly crenulate-serrulate, glabrous, coriaceous,
pale to yellowish- or mid-green, sometimes paler below, lateral nerves and dense
reticulate venation more prominent below than above. Inflorescence of solitary, axillary,
dichasial or mono c has ial cymes, 0.5-2. 3cm long; whitish puberulous; pedicels- 2 -5mm long,
puberulous, articulated in the lower half; flowers 3-25 per cyme, about 2.5mm in diameter,
polygamous, 5-merous. Sepals lanceolate to triangular, 0.5-1. 25mm long, apex acute to
subacute, margins ciliolate; petals white to cream, oblong, 1.5-2. 5mm long, margins
ciliolate to more or less entire; stamens 5, exceeding to slightly shorter than petals,
filaments l-3mm long, slender, arising from below the disk; Buy Acyclovir Online disk narrow, convex, not
lobed, about 1.25-1. 5mm in diameter; ovary ovoid, 3-locular, about one quarter immersed
in disk, style up to 0.75mm long, 3-fid at apex. Fruit a pink or red capsule, obconic,
4-1 Omni long, 3-sided, truncate or lobes slightly ascending, coriaceous, smooth. Seeds
(2-)3, red, turning brown, glossy with fleshy white to pale yellow aril at base.
(Robson, 1966; Sesebe Demissew, 1983).
Flowering during the first half of the rains, fruiting in the latter half.
4. ESTABLISHED MODERN PHARMACEUTICAL USES
May tans ine has been isolated from the stem wood of Kenyan M. buchananii (Sneden
& Beemsterboer, 1980). The compound has been extensively studied as part of the drug
development programme of the Division of Cancer Treatment, National Cancer Institute
in Bethseda, USA (Dorr & Fritz, 1980), in the course of which as much as 15,000kg of
the stem wood was collected in 1976 (Sneden & Beemsterber, 1980). The drug has now
reached phase II clinical trials (Cassady cMt al . , 1981) despite earlier indications
of marked toxicity (Chabner e al. , 1978). Considerable activity has been directed
towards it synthesis (Meyers & Shaw, 1974; Meyers e al . , 1975; Meyers & Brinkmeyer,
1975; Corey & Bock, 1975; Elliott & Fried, 1976).
Maytansine has shown significant activity against various animal tumours, including
B-16 melanoma, lymphatic leukaemia, Buy Acyclovir Online and carsinosarcoma. Cytotoxic activity appears to
be caused by inhibition of the proper formation of the mitotic spindle and thus cessation
of cell division (Remillard et al. , 1975). Side effects noted in phase I human studies
were mainly gastro-intestinal , hepatic, and neurological. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea,
and lethargy have been reported as being dose-limiting (Chabner et. a 1 . , 1978).
Structure/activity-relationship studies have shown that the C-3 ester group is
essential for in vivo activity (Kupchan et aK , 1974, 1975).
5. FOLK MEDICINAL USES
Roots of the related Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell (the Confetti tree) chipped
into beer have been used in Zambia as an aphrodisiac (Lewis & Elvin-Lewis, 1977^; The
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