On the one hand, you have the throwing of the 1919 World Series by eight players—a selfish act which reflects negatively toward the team, fans and everyone surrounding baseball.
Although the thought process of using steroids could be seen as supporting one's team, in most cases it's just as selfish as throwing a game and used by ego-maniacs in search of personal glory.
On the other side of things, the White Sox were throwing a World Series for a bigger cause; to revolt against a cheap owner in the form of Charles Comiskey.
Regarding steroids, there was no real "bigger cause."
You can argue the cause was to help a team win, but the counter argument would be that the big name steroid users didn't really win—except Mark McGwire and Jose Canseco in 1989 (Canseco only played 67 games the year the Athletics won the World Series), Roger Clemens and Andy Pettitte in 1999 and 2000 with the Yankees (arguably, they actually weren't that great in those seasons) and Manny Ramirez and David Ortiz in 2004 and perhaps 2007.
Yes, they won MVP awards, Cy Young awards and other statues, but most baseball enthusiasts sleep better at night knowing that, in most cases, they didn't get to spray the World Series champagne.
It is also questionable whether the times steroid users did win, if their performances were the reason the team won or if they were even enhanced at all (except seemingly Ortiz and Ramirez for the Red Sox).
Steroids seem to be for one's personal gain. While completely negative toward an entire fan base, the Black Sox scandal at least had some meaning (yet ironically, a far worse punishment).