Matt Moore started the third quarter after Cutler appeared to suffer the injury after taking a hit on the last play of the first half.
It was a tough way to close a poor performance for Cutler, who threw three first-half interceptions against the Bucs.
Cutler, 34, missed Miami's Week 8 loss against the Baltimore Ravens after suffering multiple cracked ribs in the team's 31-28 win over the New York Jets on Oct. 22. He was able to return Nov. 5 to face the Oakland Raiders, going 34-of-42 for 311 yards and three scores.
The 2017 season has been a struggle for Cutler and Miami's offense, however. Coming into Sunday, he'd thrown for 1,519 yards, 12 touchdowns and six interceptions while completing 65.3 percent of his passes. The Dolphins came into their matchup with the Bucs at 4-5 and were 29th in passing yards per game (194.9) and 32nd in points per contest (15.2).
If Cutler is forced to miss additional time, Moore will earn the starting nod. In two appearances coming into Sunday, he'd thrown for 364 yards, two touchdowns and three interceptions, completing 58.5 percent of his passes.