Pedroia was activated from the DL on Tuesday, but his knee issues persisted to the point that another stint was required.
This has already been an unlucky year for the veteran when it comes to injuries. After playing 154 games last season, Pedroia has missed time in 2017 due to issues with his wrist, ribs, knee and ankle.
The latest issue will once again force the Red Sox to play without their clubhouse leader.
When healthy, though, Pedroia remains one of the most consistent players in baseball. The former MVP and four-time All-Star had a resurgence in 2016 when he hit .318 with 15 home runs for the top offense in baseball.
He remains a dangerous hitter in 2017, posting a line of .303 with six homers and 54 RBI so far this season.
With fellow infielders Marco Hernandez and Josh Rutledge also injured, Eduardo Nunez likely becomes the next man up for Boston at second base with Brock Holt also capable of filling in if needed.