Spoiler alert: there is no "next Adrian Peterson." The comeback last season from ACL surgery was notable not just in the amount of time it took for Peterson to come back, but how well he played from Week 1 on. Peterson didn't have down time and his talent level is such that he could put up one of the great running back seasons of all time.
There's not going to be someone like that, in the sense of putting up record breaking numbers. It's possible, sure, but it's not likely. What we have here is a list of players that could come back and have an oversized impact. Some, like Robert Griffin III, are expected to come back quickly and well, giving them the chance to produce as we'd expected before the injury. Others are more supporting players, but their support is crucial.
In looking for the next Adrian Peterson, we have to define what it is we're looking for. The player has to be coming back from a significant injury that would be expected to cause the player to miss significant time. They must be in a key role with a team and if healthy, would be worth at least one win. There's also a downside: if the player is not as healthy as we think or left some of his talent on the operating table, that win could be lost to injury as well.
Valuing both the potential upside and downside of these players is key on understanding who they are expected to be and understanding the effect and timeline of their injury. Being able to do both accurately and dispassionately will lead to a proper valuation and placement on your draft board or at least being able to tell your buddies "I told you so" when people are surprised by one of these comebacks.