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Adding Howard, the best center in the NBA, would improve any team, but the Thunder would improve the most.
This is because of his offensive abilities.
Howard is a lethal low post scorer whose athleticism and reach allows him to score at ease if he is not double teamed. The Thunder totally lack a frontcourt player with those skills. Serge Ibaka is still beginning to develop an offensive game, and Kendrick Perkins will never develop one.
This means that teams just have to focus on defending the perimeter and the scoring talents of Westbrook and Durant. With Howard, this would be suicide.
Offensive variation puts defenses in a quandary. If too much attention is paid to Howard, Durant and the outside shooters would be able to take too many open shots. If teams focused on them, Howard would be able to go to work inside.
Very few teams could defend this, and it would pose more of a headache than the trio at Miami because of the different games they play.
Howard is also such a good defender. While Perkins is widely regarded as a top defender, Howard is unanimously regarded as the best in the league. He is a top-five shot-blocker, battles with Kevin Love to be the best rebounder in the NBA and is possibly the best on-man defender.
Therefore, as good as Perkins may be, Howard is better, and his presence would make the Thunder a tougher defensive team. He would turn them into an elite rebounding team, and his shot-blocking ability would combine with Serge Ibaka to create a duo who could alter almost any shot put up within the three-point arc.
Another advantage could be to the cap room of the Thunder. Although I am no expert on the matter, it seems to me that trading two superstars for one would free up some cap room. This logically should give the Thunder more money to bring back other talented youngsters like Ibaka and James Harden while retaining their depth.